CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

z 

[1] Larva

[2] Subimago & imago

[3] Egg

[1.1] Head [1.2] Thorax [1.3] Abdomen [2.1] Head [2.2] Thorax [2.3] Abdomen

INDEX OF CHARACTERS

1.1. LARVA:
HEAD AND ITS APPENDAGES
Head capsule
[1.1.1-5], eyes [1.1.6-7], antennae [1.1.8-11], mouth apparatus [1.1.12-59]
   

[1.1] Head

— hypognathous: Siphlonurus/fg1 (P), Ameletus/fg1 (P), Acanthametropus/fg1 (P), Ametropus (1), Metretopus/fg1 (P), Tetramerotarsata (VAR), Vetulata (5), Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (P), Rallidens (P)

— prognathous: Chiloporter (2)

— enlarged: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

[1.1.1] Vertex

— with pair of tubercles: Rhionella (2)

[1.1.2] Frontal suture

— anteriad of lateral ocelli: Turbanoculata (3)

— obtuse-angled: Centroptilum ()

— acute-angled: 

[1.1.3] Frons 

— with pair of projections between antennae: Baetisca/f4=g3 (1), Acanthametropus/fg2 (1)

— with pair of denticles dorsad of antennae: Palingenia/f2=g1 (1), Vietnamella (1)

— with pair of denticles ventrad of antennae: Vietnamella (1)

— with pair of longitudinal ridges: Vetulata (5)

— with unpaired pointed projection: Isonychia/fg1 (1)

— with keel: Nigrobaetis/g1 (), part of Labiobaetis/f2=g1 (4), part of Indobaetis (), Fallceon (), Paracloeodes (), Moribaetis (not all) (?) 

— with flat elevation with margins overlapping antennal bases: Indocloeon (2), ?Rhithrocloeon/g1 (), ?Aturbina (?), 

— without keel: Baetofemorata (4), Camelobaetidius/g1 (), Baetodes/g1 (), Caribaetis (), Americabaetis (), Andesiops/g1 (), Mayobaetis (), Offadens (), Edmundsiops (), Callibaetis/fg1 (6), Cloeodes/g1 () 

— with shelf-like projection: Fossoriae (2)

— with shelf-like projection serrate or bidentate: Ephemera/fg10 (1), Palingenia/f2=g1 (1)

— with setae: part of Jubabaetis/g1 (4), Clypeocaenis/fg3 (1)

— with pair of setose projections: Behningia/fg1 (1)

— with ocellar protuberances – see [1.1.6]

— forming frontal shield – see [1.1.4]

[1.1.4] Frontal shield (head shield)

— present: part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Jubabaetis/g3 (1)}, Discoglossata (1), Heptagennota (1), Timpanoga/fg4 (1), part of Melanemerella/fg1 (VAR), Dicercomyzon (1)

— widened anteriorly: Epeorus/fg2 (3)

— sharply expanded laterally: Atopopus/g2 (1)

— with lateral incisions: Oligoneuria/f4=g5 (1)

— with keel: Elassoneuria/g1 (4)

— with anterior projection: part of Oligoneuria/f4=g5 (4) {Spaniophlebia (1), Oligoneuria/f5=g6 (1)}

— without marginal setae: Homoeoneuria/g1 (5), Elassoneuria/g1 (4)

— with marginal setae long: part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Jubabaetis/g3 (1)}, Discoglossata (not all) (1) {Oligoneuriella/g1 (P)}, Epeorus/fg2 (3), part of Melanemerella/fg1 (VAR), part of Teloganodes/f1=g3 (VAR)

— with marginal setae spatulate: Lachlania (1)

— with marginal setae projected: Iron/g2 (P)

— with marginal setae pressed: see Jubabaetis/g1 (4), Ironopsis/g1 (1)

[1.1.5] Clypeus

— fused with labrum: Discoglossata (1)

— hidden under head shield: Discoglossata (1), Heptagennota (1)

— forming a shelf: Euthyplocia/fg1 (1)

— with cross band of hairs: Drunella/g1 (2)

— widened distally: ?part of Atalophlebolinguata (?) {Hermanellognatha (1), }

— with median process: part of Hermanellognatha (1)

— with lateral processes: Jappa/g2 (1)

Eyes of larva [1.1.6–7]

[1.1.6] Ocelli

— approximated: Ametropus (1)

— with ocellar protuberances: Brachycercus/f1=g3 (3), Clypeocaenis/fg3 (1), Caenoculis, Vietnamella (1)

[1.1.7] Oculi

— with vertical bands: Fascioculus (1)

— transferred anteriorly: Ametropus (1)

— in with square facets in upper portion: Atalophleboculata (1)

Antennae of larva [1.1.8–11]

[1.1.8] Antenna

— elongate: Tetramerotarsata (13)

[1.1.9] Scapus

— with projection: Labiobaetis/f2=g1 (not all) (???) 

[1.1.10] Pedicellus

[1.1.11] Flagellum

— with whorls of long setae: Ephemera/fg10 (10), Hexagenia/fg2 (1)

— without long setae: Eatonica/g1 (2)

MOUTH APPARATUS
Specialization [1.1.12], labrum [1.1.13–16], mandible [1.1.7–26], superlingua [1.1.27], hypopharynx [1.1.28], maxilla [1.1.29–46], labium [1.1.47–59]

[1.1.12] Mouth apparatus

— specialized for carnivorism: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Centroptiloides/g4 (), Raptobaetopus (1), Echinobaetis ()}, Pseudiron (1), Acanthomola (1), Anepeorus (1), Behningia/fg1 (2)

— filtering: part of Turbanoculata (VAR), Eusetisura (2) {Discoglossata (2)}, Arthroplea (1), Clypeocaenis/fg1 (1), Tricorygnatha (1), Haplohyphes (1), 

— of "Dilatognathus-type": part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {Dilatognathus (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1), part of Notophlebia (), Hermanellognatha (1), Ulmeritus/g2 (),  Kalbaybaria (), ...}

— scraping: Radulapalpata (1), Dicercomyzon (2)

Labrum [1.1.13–16]

[1.1.13] Labrum

— widened: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), part of Atalophlebolinguata () {Hermanellognatha (1), Dilatognathus (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1)}

— flat: Hermanellognatha (1) 

— elongate: Ameletus/fg1 (1)

— narrowed, length exceeds width: Cinygma (1)

— truncate: Metretopus/fg1 (2)

— semicircular: Ameletopsis/fg1 (not all) {Ameletopsis/fg2 (P), Mirawara (P)}

[1.1.14] Setae on outer surface of labrum

— transverse subapical row: Tetramerotarsata (not all) (6) {Turbanoculata (not all) (4)}, Atalophlebopectinata (not all) (2) 

— second transverse row: Atalophlebopectinata (not all) (2) 

— transverse row bent laterally-proximally: Edmundsula ()

— transverse row shifted proximally: Hermanellognatha (1), Dilatognathus (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1)

— transverse row interrupted medially: Hermanellognatha (1) Dilatognathus (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1)

— not forming transverse rows: part of Atalophlebopectinata (2) {Neochoroterpes (1), Notophlebia (1)}

— submedian pair: Tetramerotarsata (not all) (6)

— submedian pair absent: part of Tetramerotarsata (6) {Bugilliesia (1), part of Labiobaetis/f2=g1 (???), Pseudopannota/g2 (1), Guajirolus/g1 ()}

— stick-shape: Isonychia/fg1 (2)

[1.1.15] Setae on distal margin of labrum

— stout: Leptophlebia/fg1 (not all) (2)

— not stout: Atalophleboculata (2)

[1.1.16] Median incision of labrum

— absent: part of Turbanoculata (4) {Raptobaetopus (1) ...}, part of Atalophleboculata (2) {Nathanella (), Thraulodes () ...}

— deep: Metreletus (4)

— widened: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ametropus (2)

— sharp: Turbanoculata (not all) (4)

— large V-shaped: part of Turbanoculata (4) {Pseudocentroptiloides/g2 (1), Callibaetis/fg1 (not all) (1)}

— with pair of sclerotized protuberances complementary with protuberance on hypopharynx: Callibaetis/fg1 (1)

— with flat denticles: Atalophleboculata (not all) (2) 

— without denticles: part of Atalophleboculata (2) {Hermanellognatha (1), }

Mandibles [1.1.17–26]

[1.1.17] Mandibles

— lost initial asymmetry: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), Pseudiron (1), part of Behningia/fg1 (2), Vietnamella (2)

— inverted: Arthroplea (2), part of Radulapalpata (VAR)

[1.1.18] Each mandible

— elongate perpendicular to axis of articulation: Ameletus/fg1 (1), Nesameletus/f2=Metamonius/g2 (1), Rallidens (1)

— shortened perpendicular to axis of articulation: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Centroptiloides/g4 (1), Raptobaetopus (1), Pseudiron (1), Raptoheptagenia (1), Epeorus/fg3 (1), Anepeorus (1), Behningia/fg1 (2), part of Hyrtanella/f2=Crinitella/g1 (VAR), part of Melanemerella/fg1 (VAR), part of Teloganodes/f1=g3 (VAR), Dicercomyzon (2)

— elongate along axis of articulation: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1)

— with outer margin angulate: Hermanellognatha (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1)

— with tusk – see [1.1.20]

— with blank: Maculognathus (1)

[1.1.19] Mandibular setation

— on dorsal side setal field, proximally limited by arched row: Coloburiscus/fg1 (1)

— on outer side 2 transverse rows: Clypeocaenis/fg3 (3)

— on outer side longitudinal row: Tricorygnatha (1)

— on ventral side arched row: Cryptoprosternata (3)

— on ventral side regular transverse arched row: Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (1A)

— on tusk – see [1.1.20]

— on median margin – see [1.1.23]

[1.1.20] Tusk

— present: Fimbriatotergaliae (not all) (8), Kalbaybaria () 

— absent: part of Fimbriatotergaliae (8) {Behningia/fg1 (13), Caenotergaliae (10)}

— curved medially: Potamanthus/fg1 (7), Euthyplocia/fg1 (2), Ichthybotus (1), Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (8)

— curved laterally: Ephemera/fg9 (2), Palingenia/f2=g1 (8)

— long: Anthopotamus (1), part of Rhoenanthus/g1 (VAR)

— short: Potamanthus/fg3 (1), part of Rhoenanthus/g1 (VAR), Afromera/g1 (1)

— round in section: Ephemera/fg9 (2)

— with lateral serrate ridge: Palingenia/f2=g1 (2)

— with spine-like seta on each denticle: Palingenia/f2=g1 (not all) (2) {Pentagenia (P), Chankagenesia (P), Anagenesia/g2 (P), Cheirogenesia (P)}

— without spine-like seta on denticle: part of Palingenia/f2=g1 (2) {Palingenia/f4=g3 (1), Mortogenesia (1), Plethogenesia (2)}

— with tubercles dorsally and laterally: Ichthybotus (1), Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3 (7)

— with denticles on inner side: Campsurus/fg1 (1)

— with largest denticle in proximal part of inner side: part of Campsurus/fg3 (P)

— with largest denticle in distal part of inner side: Tortopus (2)

— specialized as biting: Asthenopus/fg1 (1)

— with long setae on inner side: Euthyplocia/fg1 (2)

[1.1.21] Incisor (apical canine of mandible)

— diminished: Discoglossata (2), Campsurus/fg1 (1)

— enlarged: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (1), Vietnamella (2)

— with combs: Rallidens (1)

— with 3 apical denticles: Heptagenia/f6=g5 (not all) (1)

— stout: Epeorus/fg3 (1)

— of right mandible with large denticle near apex: Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2)

— of right mandible with process at base: Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3 (1)

[1.1.22] Kinetodontium (subapical canine of mandible)

— vestigial: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (1), Vietnamella (2)

— diminished: Discoglossata (2), Campsurus/fg1 (1)

— jointed: Siphlaenigma (P)

— not jointed: Turbanoculata (5)

— elongate: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

— stout: Epeorus/fg3 (1)

[1.1.23] Median margin (between kinetodontium and mola)

— bears prostheca – see [1.1.24–25]

— with setae: Turbanoculata (not all) (6) {Protopatellata (not all) (P) {part of Indocloeon (3), }, Cloeon/fg1 (P), Cheleocloeon (P), ...}, Heptagennota (not all) (7) {Heptagenia/f6=g5 (not all) (1), Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2), Epeorus/fg3 (1)}

— without setae: Siphlaenigma (P), part of Turbanoculata (6) {part of Indocloeon (3), Baetopus/g1 (), Baetofemorata (6), Labiobaetis/f1 (??), ...} 

[1.1.24] Prostheca of left mandible

— brush-like: Siphlaenigma (P)

— stick-like: Turbanoculata (6)

— bifid: Callibaetis/fg1 (2)

— bristle-like: Ameletus/fg1 (1), Heptagennota (not all) (7) {Heptagenia/f6=g5 (1), Epeorus/fg3 (1)}

— absent: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), part of Heptagennota (7) {Pseudiron (1)}

[1.1.25] Prostheca of right mandible

— brush-like: Siphlaenigma (P)

— stick-like, dentate: Turbanoculata (not all) (6) {Indocloeon (3), Cloeon/fg1 (P), Baetofemorata (5), Labiobaetis/f1=Pseudopannota/g1 (???), ?Nigrobaetis/g2 (not all) (?), Camelobaetidius/g1 (P)}

— bifurcate: part of Turbanoculata (6) {Centroptiloides/?* (?), ?Baetopus/g? (not all) (?), Callibaetis/fg1 (2), part of Cloeodes/g1 (), ?Nigrobaetis/fg2 (not all) (?), Takobia/g1 (?), ??Andesiops ()

— bristle-like, not dentate: part of Turbanoculata (6) {Rhithrocloeon/fg4 (1), Baetodes/g1 ()}

— absent: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ameletus/fg1 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), Heptagennota (7) {Pseudiron (1)}

[1.1.26] Mola

— absent: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1)

— without grater: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), Pseudiron (1), Raptoheptagenia (1), Acanthomola (1), Anepeorus (1), Behningia/fg1 (2)

— left with petiolate projections: Jubabaetis/g1 (1)

Superlinguae [1.1.27]

[1.1.27] Superlinguae

— vestigial or absent: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), Pseudiron (1), Raptoheptagenia (1), Anepeorus (1)

— curved laterally: Arthroplea (7), Heptagenia/f5=g4 (1), Raptoheptagenia (3), Dicercomyzon (2)

— curved laterally and pointed: Habrophlebia/fg1 (1), Jappa/g1 ()

— strongly curved laterally: Stenonema/g1 (1)

— laterally concave, apically rounded: Kageronia (1)

— laterally concave, apically angulate: Dacnogenia (3)

— laterally with subapical incision: Heptagenia/f8=g7 (1)

— laterally with subbasal concavity: Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2)

— widened apically: Cinygma (4)

— with divergent margins: Bleptus (4), Ironodes (3)

— with maximum width in middle and convergent toward apex: Rhithrogena/fg2 (5), Epeorus/fg3 (3)

— parallel-sided: Paegniodes (P)

Hypopharynx [1.1.28]

[1.1.28] Hypopharynx

— truncate: Metretopus/fg1 (2)

— incised apically: Ametropus (2)

— with sclerotized protuberance complementary with pair of protuberances on labrum: Callibaetis/fg1 (1)

— shortened: Dacnogenia (1)

— with pair of subapical lateral projections: Calliarcys (1)

— with pair of subbasal lateral projections: Atalophlebolinguata (1)

— without lateral projections: Castanophlebia (P)

Maxillae
Maxilla [1.1.29], ventral setae [1.1.30], apical setae [1.1.31–32], canines [1.1.33–34], setae of median margin [1.1.35–40], maxillary palp [1.1.41–46]

[1.1.29] Maxilla

— filtering [1.1.31–32]: Ameletus/fg1 (1), Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (2), part of Ephemerella/fg1 (16) {Cincticostella/g2 (1), Teloganopsis/g1 (1), Allenhyphes (2), Haplohyphes (1)}, Leptophlebia/fg1 (1)

— scraping: part of Ephemerella/fg1 (16) {Dicercomyzon (2)}

— diminished: Behningia/fg2 (2)

— widened: Rallidens (2)

— elongate-rectangle: Radulapalpata (not all) (3) {Bleptus (P), Ironodes (P), Paegniodes (P)}

— narrowed toward apex: Discoglossata (2)

— truncate (with apical margin formed by expansion of outer margin): Radulapalpata (not all) (3), Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (2), part of Ephemerella/fg1 (16), Leptophlebia/fg1 (1)

— truncate (with apical margin formed by expansion of inner margin): Tricorygnatha (1)

— with acute median-apical angle: Isonychia/fg1 (10), Discoglossata (2), Rhithrogena/fg2 (1), Epeorus/fg3 (1)

— with tusk-like process on median-apical angle: part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {part of Atalophleboadentata (1) {Hagenulus/fg3 (1), Hermanellognatha (not all) (1), Dilatognathus (1)}, Notophlebia (?)}

— with 5 movable appendages: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

— with gill at joining of cardo and stipes [1d]: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (7), Rallidens (4)

— with gill at joining with head [1d]: Eusetisura (3)

Ventral setae of maxilla [1.1.30-31]

[1.1.30] Setae on ventral side of maxilla

— form transverse row: Tricorygnatha (1)

— form longitudinal row: Branchitergaliae (1)

— longitudinal row straight: Cinygma (5), Paegniodes (P), Epeorus/fg1 (6) {Epeorus/fg3 (1)}

— longitudinal row slightly curved laterally: Heptagenia/f6=g5 (2)

— longitudinal row strongly curved laterally: Rhithrogena/fg2 (1)

— irregular field: Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2)

Apical setae of maxilla [1.1.31–32]

[1.1.31] Setae of apical-ventral row (among all Ephemeroptera)

— absent: Posteritorna (7), Siphlonisca (1), Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ametropus (2), part of Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (2), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), Rallidens (2), Eusetisura (4), Pseudiron (1), Arthroplea (1), Raptoheptagenia (1), Cinygma (2), Epeorus/fg3 (1), Acanthomola (1), Anepeorus (1), Fimbriatotergaliae (11), Ephemerella/fg1 (16), part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {Hermanellognatha (1)}

— vestigial: Dipteromimus (1), Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (not all) (2), Stenonema/g2 (VAR), Epeorus/fg1 (not all) (5) {Bleptus (P), Ironodes (P)}, part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {Dilatognathus (1), Isca/g1 ()}

— non-pectinate, transferred ventrally: Metretopus/fg1 (2), Tetramerotarsata (7)

— non-pectinate or pectinate: Siphlonurus/fg1 (not all) (P), Vetulata (P)

— pectinate elongate: Ameletus/fg1 (1), Leptophlebia/fg1 (not all) (1)

— pectinate oblique brush-shaped: Radulapalpata (not all) (3)

— form curved rows: part of Leptophlebia/fg1 () {...?} 

— form two separated rows: part of Leptophlebia/fg1 () {Hagenulus/fg2 ()}

— form shortened row: part of Leptophlebia/fg1 () {Isca/g1 (not all) ()}

[1.1.32] Setae on apical side of maxilla (apart of apical-ventral row – see [1.1.31])

— absent: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (2), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), Raptoheptagenia (1), Epeorus/fg3 (1)

— long, irregular: Arthroplea (1), Cinygma (2), Bleptus (P), Ironodes (P)

— long, form regular field not adjacent to canines: Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (2), Clypeocaenis/fg1 (1)

— long, form regular field adjacent to canines: Potamanthus/fg1 (8), Euthyplocia/fg1 (6), Ephemerella/fg1 (16) {Cincticostella/g1 (1) {Cincticostella/g2 (1)}, Teloganopsis/g1 (1)}, Leptophlebia/fg1 (1)

— short, scraping: Dicercomyzon (2)

Apical canines of maxilla [1.1.33–34]

[1.1.33] Number of maxillary canines (among all Ephemeroptera)

— 0: Ameletus/fg1 (1), part of Teloganopsis/g1 (1), Tricorygnatha (1), Dicercomyzon (2), part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {Atalophleboadentata (1)}

— 1: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Discoglossata (2), Arthroplea (1), Cinygma (2), Behningia/fg2 (2), Palingenia/f2=g1 (3), Vietnamella (5), Teloganodes/f1=g3 (3)

— 2: Metretopus/fg1 (2), Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ametropus (2), Isonychia/fg1 (10), Pseudiron (1), Hexagenia/g1 (2), Protobehningia (P), part of Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (2)

— 3: Baetisca/f2=g1 (P), Siphlonurus/fg1 (P), Dipteromimus (P), Tetramerotarsata (P), Vetulata (P), Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (2), Rallidens (2), Coloburiscus/fg1 (not all) (8), Heptagenia/f5=g4 (P), Rhithrogena/fg1 (P), Potamanthus/fg1 (P), Euthyplocia/fg1 (P), Ichthybotus (P), Ephemera/fg10 (P), Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (not all) (2), Caenotergaliae (P), Ephemerella/fg2 (not all) (P), Teloganella (P), Ephemerythus (P), Tricorythodes/fg1 (P), Leptohyphes/fg2 (P), Allenhyphes (2), Leptophlebia/fg1 (not all) (1) {pm.Leptophlebia/fg2 (P)}

[1.1.34] Form of maxillary canines

— in one plane with dentisetae: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1)

— stout: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (2)

— flat and wide: Rallidens (2)

— strongly enlarged: Epeorus/fg3 (1)

— diminished: Teloganopsis/g1 (1)

— completely fused together: Vietnamella (5), Teloganodes/f1=g3 (3)

— separated by impression: Cincticostella/g1 (1)

— ventral canine flattened and denticulate: Cincticostella/g2 (1)

Setae of inner (median) margin of maxilla [1.1.35–40]

[1.1.35] Setae of inner-ventral row

— absent: Tricorygnatha (1)

— 3: Teloganodes/f1=g3 (3)

— distal seta canine-like: Discoglossata (2)

[1.1.36] Setae of inner-dorsal row

— 2: Teloganodes/f1=g3 (3)

— on distal margin: Tricorygnatha (1)

— dentisetae – see [1.1.37–40]

[1.1.37] Number of dentisetae (among all Ephemeroptera)

— 0: part of Bidentiseta (1) {Protobehningia (3), part of Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (2), Clypeocaenis/g2?3 (?), part of Leptophlebia/ fg1 (1) {part of Atalophlebopectinata (1) {part of Atalophlebomaxillata (1) {Hermanellognatha (1), Dilatognathus (1)}}}}

— 1: Ameletus/fg1 (1), part of Bidentiseta (1) {part of Isonychia/fg1 (2), Palingenia/f2=g1 (3), Tricorygnatha (1), Dicercomyzon (2), part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {Atalophlebomaxillata (not all) (1)}

— 2: part of Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), part of Tetramerotarsata (P) {Baetodes/g1 (1)}, Bidentiseta (not all) (1) {Coloburiscus/fg1 (not all) (8), Isonychia/fg1 (not all) (2), Heptagennota (P), Potamanthus/fg1 (P), Euthyplocia/fg1 (P), Ichthybotus (P), Ephemera/fg9 (P), Behningia/fg2 (P), Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (not all) (2), Caenotergaliae (P), Ephemerella/fg2 (P), Ephemerythus (P), Machadorythus (P), Tricorythodes/fg1 (P), Leptohyphes/fg2 (P), Allenhyphes (2), Vietnamella (5), Teloganella (P), Teloganodes/f1=g3 (3), Leptophlebia/fg1 (not all) (1) {Leptophlebia/fg2 (P), Atalophlebopectinata (not all) (1) {Habrophlebia/fg1 (P), Terpides/fg1 (14)}}

— 3: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Anteritorna (not all) (2) {Tridentiseta (not all) (P) {Siphlonurus/fg1 (P), Dipteromimus (P), Metretopus/fg1 (P), Acanthametropus/fg1 (not all) (1), Ametropus (2), Tetramerotarsata (not all) (P), Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (3), Vetulata (P), Rallidens (2)}, part of Coloburiscus/fg1 (8)

— more than 3: Posteritorna (not all) (P) {Baetisca/f2=g1 (P)}

— indeterminate: Posteritorna (not all) (P) {Baetisca/f2=g1 (P)}, part of Anteritorna (2) {part of Bidentiseta (1) {Coloburiscus/fg1 (8)}}

[1.1.38] 1st dentiseta (distal)

— absent: part of Bidentiseta (1) {part of Isonychia/fg1 (2), Palingenia/f2=g1 (3), Tricorygnatha (1), Dicercomyzon (2), part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {part of Atalophlebopectinata (1) {Atalophlebomaxillata (1)}}

— vestigial: Isonychia/fg1 (not all) (2), Euthyplocia/fg1 (P), Hexagenia/g1 (2)

— canine-like: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1)

— massive, pressed to canines: part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Monocentroptilum (), ...}, Nesameletus/f2=Metamonius/g2 (2)

— branched from base: Atopopus/g1 (1)

— not branched: Ecdyonurus/fg2 (P), Afghanurus/g1 (P)

[1.1.39] 2nd dentiseta (proximal in Bidentiseta)

— absent: part of Atalophlebopectinata (1) {part of Atalophlebomaxillata (1) {Hermanellognatha (1), Dilatognathus (1)}}

— canine-like: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1)

— on common base with 3rd: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (3)

— on common plate with 3rd: Nesameletus/f2=Metamonius/g2 (3)

— straight: Isonychia/fg1 (2)

— widened and dentate: Pseudiron (1)

— bifurcate: Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2)

— pectinate: Teloganodes/f1=g3 (3), Atalophlebopectinata (1)

[1.1.40] 3rd dentiseta (proximal in Tridentiseta)

— absent: part of Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Bidentiseta (1)

— on common base with 2nd: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (3)

— on common plate with 2nd: Nesameletus/f2=Metamonius/g2 (3)

Maxillary palp [1.1.41–46]

[1.1.41] Maxillary palp

— absent (among all Ephemeroptera): Madecocercus (1), part of Ephemerella/fg1 (1) {part of Torleya/g1 (1), Sparsorythus (1)}

— vestigial, without muscles: Acanthametropus/fg2 (2), Ephemerella/fg1 (not all) (1)

— secondarily elongate: Tricorygnatha (1), Machadorythus (3)

— strongly elongate: Arthroplea (1)

— strongly enlarged: Behningia/fg2 (2)

— specialized as scraping: Rhithrogena/fg1 (1)

[1.1.42] Number of segments in maxillary palp (among all Ephemeroptera)

— 1: Acanthametropus/fg2 (2), part of Ephemerella/fg1 (1)

— 2: part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Similicloeon (), Baetopus/g1 (), Baetungulata (3), Callibaetisfg3 (3), ?part of Cloeodes/g1 ()}, part of Eusetisura (2) {Isonychia/fg1 (2), Discoglossata (2)}, Arthroplea (1), Rhithrogena/fg1 (1), Anepeorus (2), part of Ephemera/fg9 (P), Cryptoprosternata (4), Brachycercus/f1=g3 (1), Clypeocaenis/fg2 (1)

— 3: Posteritorna (P), Siphlonurus/fg1 (P), Dipteromimus (P), Ameletus/fg1 (P), Metretopus/fg1 (2), Analetris (P), Ametropus (P), Siphlaenigma (2), Turbanoculata (not all) (VAR) {Callibaetoides (P), Indocloeon (not all) (4), Centroptilum (), ?part of Cloeodes/g1 (), ...?}, Vetulata (P), Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (4), Rallidens (P), Eusetisura (not all) (2) {Coloburiscus/fg1 (P)}, Pseudiron (P), Heptagenia/f5=g4 (P), Potamanthus/fg1 (P), Euthyplocia/fg1 (P), Ichthybotus (P), Ephemera/fg9 (not all) (P), Behningia/fg1 (P), Neoephemera/fg1 (P), Caenis/f5=g3 (P), Amercaenis (P), Caenopsella/g1 (P), Brasiliocaenis (P), Caenoculis (P), Ephemerella/fg1 (not all) (1), Leptophlebia/fg1 (P)

— looks as 3 because 1st segment is divided to two: part of Baetungulata (3) {Pseudopannota/g2 (6), Guajirolus/g1 ()}

— many secondary segments: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

[1.1.43] 1st segment of maxillary palp

— with gill [1d]: ?Afrobaetodes (?)

— shortened: Cryptoprosternata (4) {Discoglossata (2)}

— elongate: Arthroplea (1)

— with fan-form flexor attached to outer margin: Rhithrogena/fg1 (1)

— with fan-form flexor attached to inner margin: Behningia/fg2 (2)

[1.1.44] Distal (2nd+3rd) segment of 2-segmented maxillary palp

— divided into secondary segments: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

— thickened: Eusetisura (2), Cryptoprosternata (4)

— long, with 2 rows of filtering setae: Arthroplea (1)

— with scraping setae: Rhithrogena/fg1 (1)

— with scraping setae occupying nearly whole length of segment: Rhithrogena/fg3 (1)

— with pigmented ridge bordering field of scraping setae: Rhithrogena/fg2 (2)

[1.1.45] 2nd segment of 3-segmented maxillary palp

— shortened: Metretopus/fg1 (2), Clypeocaenis/fg1 (1)

— curved: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1)

[1.1.46] 3rd segment of 3-segmented maxillary palp

— shortened: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (4), Siphlaenigma (2), Tricorygnatha (1)

— vestigial: Heptagenia/f5=g4 (P)

— vestigial small: Rhithrocloeon/fg1 (not all) (2) Heptagenia/f6=g5 (3)

— vestigial triangular: Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2)

— with transverse rows of long setae: Hermanellognatha (1) 

— with irregular long setae: Hagenulus/fg3 (?), Dilatognathus (1), Edmundsula ()

    Labium
Labium [1.1.47], submentum [1.1.48], mentum [1.1.49], glossae [1.1.50–51], paraglossae [1.1.52–53], labial palps [1.1.54–59]

[1.1.47] Labium

— enlarged: Pseudocentroptiloides/g1 (1), Indobaetis ()

— with gills [1d]: Siphluriscus (1), part of Eusetisura (3)

— scraping: Radulapalpata (not all) (1)

— raptorial: Raptoheptagenia (1)

— diminished: Behningia/fg2 (2)

— wide: Dicercomyzon (2)

[1.1.48] Submentum

— enlarged, cover labial palps: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1)

— with pair of flat lateral lobes: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

— shortened: Tricorygnatha (1)

— membranous without muscles: Pentamerotarsata (1)

[1.1.49] Mentum

— enlarged, with palpi adductors transverse: Radulapalpata (1)

— with glossal and paraglossal muscles attached at one point: Indocloeon (5)

— with deep cleft between glossae: Teloganella (1)

Glossae [1.1.50–51]

[1.1.50] Glossae

— fused together forming disc: Discoglossata (2)

— fused with mentum and paraglossae: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Tricorygnatha (1) Machadorythus (4), part of Coryphorus ()

— curved or produced ventrally: Metretopus/fg1 (2), Miroculis/g1 (), Hapsiphlebia/g1 () 

— curved ventro-laterally: Terpides/g1 (2), Castanophlebia (2)

— not curved ventrally: Hermanelonota (P), Hagenulus/fg2 (?), 

— petiolate: Dipteromimus (1)

— basally widened ventrad of paraglossae, distally dorsad of paraglossae: Turbanoculata (7)

— shortened: part of Turbanoculata (7) {Pseudocentroptiloides/g1 () ...}

— narrowed proximally: Raptobaetopus (1) 

— projected laterad of paraglossae: Discoglossata (2)

— truncate, with apical row of flat setae: Ameletus/fg2 (1)

— thickened and truncate: Chiloporter (1)

— elongate and narrowed, with stout setae on apex: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (5)

— crescent: Arthroplea (1)

— semicircular: Kageronia (2)

— curved medially: Heptagenia/f8=g7 (2), Stenonema/g1 (4)

— pyramidal: Radulapalpata (not all) (1) {Dacnogenia (P), Paegniodes (P), Rhithrogena/fg2 (P), Epeorus/fg2 (P)}

— rhomboid: Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2)

— widening distally, roundish-triangular: Cinygma (3)

— roundish: Bleptus (1)

— shortened: Behningia/fg2 (2)

[1.1.51] Setation of glossa

— stout apical setae: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (5)

— 2 stout short setae on apex: Platybaetis (1) 

Paraglossae [1.1.52–53]

[1.1.52] Paraglossae

— fused with mentum and glossae: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Tricorygnatha (1), Machadorythus (4), part of Coryphorus ()

— not separated from mentum: Posteritorna (7), Ephemerella/fg1 (2)

— curved ventrally: Metretopus/fg1 (2)

— elongate and narrowed: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (5)

— petiolate: Dipteromimus (1)

— parallel-sided: Turbanoculata (not all) (7) 

— much wider and longer than glossae: part of Turbanoculata (7) {Labiobaetis/f2=g1 (1), Americabaetis (), Baetodes/g1 () ... }

— hidden in cavities on dorsal side of glossal disc: Discoglossata (2)

— crescent: Arthroplea (1), Campsurus/fg1 (2)

— widened: Radulapalpata (1), Dicercomyzon (2)

— extended proximally: Hexagenia/fg1 (1)

— shortened: Behningia/fg2 (2)

[1.1.53] Setation of paraglossa

— longitudinal row of setae: Tetramerotarsata (8)

— apical setae transferred ventrally: Rhithrocloeon/fg3 (1)    

Labial palps [1.1.54–59]

[1.1.54] Labial palp

— specialized as scraping: Radulapalpata (1)

— strongly enlarged: Behningia/fg2 (2)

— enormously elongate: Leentvaaria (1)

[1.1.55] Number of segments of labial palp (among all Ephemeroptera)

— 2: Metretopus/fg1 (2), part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Mutelocloeon (), Baetopus/g1 ()}, part of Eusetisura (2) {Isonychia/fg1 (2), Discoglossata (2)}, Heptagennota (8) {Pseudiron (1), Arthroplea (1), Radulapalpata (1)}, part of Behningia/fg1 (2) Cryptoprosternata (4), Brachycercus/f1=g3 (2)

— 3: Posteritorna (P), Siphlonurus/fg1 (P), Dipteromimus (P), Ameletus/fg1 (P), Acanthametropus/fg1 (P), Vetulata (P), Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (P), Rallidens (P), Siphlaenigma (3), Turbanoculata (not all) (VAR), Ametropus (P), Eusetisura (not all) (2) {Coloburiscus/fg1 (P)}, Potamanthus/fg1 (P), Euthyplocia/fg1 (P), Ichthybotus (P), Ephemera/fg9 (P), Behningia/fg1 (not all) (2), Neoephemera/fg1 (P), Caenis/f3=g1 (P), Ephemerella/fg1 (not all) (3), Leptophlebia/fg1 (P)

— many secondary segments: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

[1.1.56] 1st segment of labial palp

— shortened: Cryptoprosternata (4)

— widened, but with weak muscles: Pseudiron (1)

— widened, with fan-form flexor attached to outer margin: Ametropus (2), Radulapalpata (1)

— widened, with fan-form flexor attached to inner margin: Behningia/fg2 (2)

— enormously elongate: Leentvaaria (1)

[1.1.57] 2nd+3rd segment of 2-segmented labial palp

— divided into secondary segments:Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

— thickened: Metretopus/fg1 (2), Baetopus/g1 (), Eusetisura (2), Cryptoprosternata (4)

— widest near base: Raptobaetopus (1)

— widest near middle: Metretopus/fg2 (3)

— widest near apex: Siphloplecton (3), Metreplecton (3)

— with filtering setae: Arthroplea (1), Isonychia/fg1 (2)

— scraping: Radulapalpata (not all) (1)

— with field of scraping setae terminating at distance from sclerotized ridge: Kageronia (3), Ecdyonurus/fg1 (5), Rhithrogena/fg1 (4)

— with field of scraping setae terminating close to sclerotized ridge: Heptagenia/f7=g6 (1), Cinygma (6)

— in form of sclerotized hook: Raptoheptagenia (1)

— with bifurcate dorsal setae: Rhithrogena/fg1 (2)

[1.1.58] 2nd segment of 3-segmented labial palp

— enormously elongate: Leentvaaria (1)

— widened or with inner-apical projection: Baetisca/f3=g2 (3), Parameletus/fg2 (1), Ametropus (2), Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Siphlaenigma (3), Crassabwa/g1 (1), Indocloeon (6), Bugilliesia (2), Cheleocloeon (9), Americabaetis (), Baetofemorata (not all) (7), Camelobaetidius/g1 (), Labiobaetis/f2=g1 (2)}

— slightly widened inner-apically («Afroptilum-type»): Monocentroptilum (2), Afroptilum, Dicentroptilum, Xyrodromeus, Afroptiloides, Platycloeon, Peuhlella 

— with row of long setae on outer side: Tricorygnatha (1), Dilatognathus (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1)

— with row of long setae on dorsal side: Dilatognathus (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1)

— without muscle (among all Ephemeroptera, including 2-segmented palps – see [1.1.55]): Metretopus/fg1 (2), part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Mutelocloeon (?), Baetopus/g1 (?) Baetiella/g1 (1), part of Acentrella/fg1 (1)}, Heptagennota (8), part of Ephemera/fg9 (P), Cryptoprosternata (4), Behningia/fg1 (2), Brachycercus/f1=g3 (2), Ephemerella/fg1 (3)

— longer on outer side: Callibaetis/fg1 (4)

— diminished: Tricorygnatha (1)

[1.1.59] 3rd segment of 3-segmented labial palp

— truncate: Centroptilum (), Cloeon/fg1 ()

— truncate and widened: Centroptilum (), part of Cloeon/fg1 {part of Cloeon/fg2 (), part of Similicloeon (), Procloeon/g1 ()}

— pointed: Paracloeodes ()

— diminished: Tricorygnatha (1)

— widened and roundish: Dabulamanzia (1)

— together with second form integral figure:  Callibaetis/fg1 (4) 

— with row of long setae on outer side: Dilatognathus (1)

— with row of long setae on inner side: Dilatognathus (1)

— with spine-like setae on inner side: Edmundsula ()