CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

z 

[1] Larva

[2] Subimago & imago

[3] Egg

[1.1] Head [1.2] Thorax [1.3] Abdomen [2.1] Head [2.2] Thorax [2.3] Abdomen

INDEX OF CHARACTERS

1.1. LARVA:
HEAD AND ITS APPENDAGES
Head capsule
[1.1.1-5], eyes [1.1.6-7], antennae [1.1.8-11], mouth apparatus [1.1.12-59]
   

[1.1] Head

— hypognathous: Siphlonurus/fg1 (P), Ameletus/fg1 (P), Acanthametropus/fg1 (P), Ametropus (1), Metretopus/fg1 (P), Tetramerotarsata (VAR), Vetulata (5), Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (P), Rallidens (P)

— prognathous: Chiloporter (2)

— enlarged: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

[1.1.1] Vertex

— with pair of tubercles: Rhionella (2)

[1.1.2] Frontal suture

— anteriad of lateral ocelli: Turbanoculata (3)

— obtuse-angled: Centroptilum ()

— acute-angled: 

[1.1.3] Frons 

— with pair of projections between antennae: Baetisca/f4=g3 (1), Acanthametropus/fg2 (1)

— with pair of denticles dorsad of antennae: Palingenia/f2=g1 (1), Vietnamella (1)

— with pair of denticles ventrad of antennae: Vietnamella (1)

— with pair of longitudinal ridges: Vetulata (5)

— with unpaired pointed projection: Isonychia/fg1 (1)

— with keel: Nigrobaetis/g1 (), part of Labiobaetis/f2=g1 (4), part of Indobaetis (), Fallceon (), Paracloeodes (), Moribaetis (not all) (?) 

— with flat elevation with margins overlapping antennal bases: Indocloeon (2), ?Rhithrocloeon/g1 (), ?Aturbina (?), 

— without keel: Baetofemorata (4), Camelobaetidius/g1 (), Baetodes/g1 (), Caribaetis (), Americabaetis (), Andesiops/g1 (), Mayobaetis (), Offadens (), Edmundsiops (), Callibaetis/fg1 (6), Cloeodes/g1 () 

— with shelf-like projection: Fossoriae (2)

— with shelf-like projection serrate or bidentate: Ephemera/fg10 (1), Palingenia/f2=g1 (1)

— with setae: part of Jubabaetis/g1 (4), Clypeocaenis/fg3 (1)

— with pair of setose projections: Behningia/fg1 (1)

— with ocellar protuberances – see [1.1.6]

— forming frontal shield – see [1.1.4]

[1.1.4] Frontal shield (head shield)

— present: part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Jubabaetis/g3 (1)}, Discoglossata (1), Heptagennota (1), Timpanoga/fg4 (1), part of Melanemerella/fg1 (VAR), Dicercomyzon (1)

— widened anteriorly: Epeorus/fg2 (3)

— sharply expanded laterally: Atopopus/g2 (1)

— with lateral incisions: Oligoneuria/f4=g5 (1)

— with keel: Elassoneuria/g1 (4)

— with anterior projection: part of Oligoneuria/f4=g5 (4) {Spaniophlebia (1), Oligoneuria/f5=g6 (1)}

— without marginal setae: Homoeoneuria/g1 (5), Elassoneuria/g1 (4)

— with marginal setae long: part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Jubabaetis/g3 (1)}, Discoglossata (not all) (1) {Oligoneuriella/g1 (P)}, Epeorus/fg2 (3), part of Melanemerella/fg1 (VAR), part of Teloganodes/f1=g3 (VAR)

— with marginal setae spatulate: Lachlania (1)

— with marginal setae projected: Iron/g2 (P)

— with marginal setae pressed: see Jubabaetis/g1 (4), Ironopsis/g1 (1)

[1.1.5] Clypeus

— fused with labrum: Discoglossata (1)

— hidden under head shield: Discoglossata (1), Heptagennota (1)

— forming a shelf: Euthyplocia/fg1 (1)

— with cross band of hairs: Drunella/g1 (2)

— widened distally: ?part of Atalophlebolinguata (?) {Hermanellognatha (1), }

— with median process: part of Hermanellognatha (1)

— with lateral processes: Jappa/g2 (1)

Eyes of larva [1.1.6–7]

[1.1.6] Ocelli

— approximated: Ametropus (1)

— with ocellar protuberances: Brachycercus/f1=g3 (3), Clypeocaenis/fg3 (1), Caenoculis, Vietnamella (1)

[1.1.7] Oculi

— with vertical bands: Fascioculus (1)

— transferred anteriorly: Ametropus (1)

— in with square facets in upper portion: Atalophleboculata (1)

Antennae of larva [1.1.8–11]

[1.1.8] Antenna

— elongate: Tetramerotarsata (13)

[1.1.9] Scapus

— with projection: Labiobaetis/f2=g1 (not all) (???) 

[1.1.10] Pedicellus

[1.1.11] Flagellum

— with whorls of long setae: Ephemera/fg10 (10), Hexagenia/fg2 (1)

— without long setae: Eatonica/g1 (2)

MOUTH APPARATUS
Specialization [1.1.12], labrum [1.1.13–16], mandible [1.1.7–26], superlingua [1.1.27], hypopharynx [1.1.28], maxilla [1.1.29–46], labium [1.1.47–59]

[1.1.12] Mouth apparatus

— specialized for carnivorism: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Centroptiloides/g4 (), Raptobaetopus (1), Echinobaetis ()}, Pseudiron (1), Acanthomola (1), Anepeorus (1), Behningia/fg1 (2)

— filtering: part of Turbanoculata (VAR), Eusetisura (2) {Discoglossata (2)}, Arthroplea (1), Clypeocaenis/fg1 (1), Tricorygnatha (1), Haplohyphes (1), 

— of "Dilatognathus-type": part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {Dilatognathus (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1), part of Notophlebia (), Hermanellognatha (1), Ulmeritus/g2 (),  Kalbaybaria (), ...}

— scraping: Radulapalpata (1), Dicercomyzon (2)

Labrum [1.1.13–16]

[1.1.13] Labrum

— widened: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), part of Atalophlebolinguata () {Hermanellognatha (1), Dilatognathus (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1)}

— flat: Hermanellognatha (1) 

— elongate: Ameletus/fg1 (1)

— narrowed, length exceeds width: Cinygma (1)

— truncate: Metretopus/fg1 (2)

— semicircular: Ameletopsis/fg1 (not all) {Ameletopsis/fg2 (P), Mirawara (P)}

— soft distally: Pseudopannota/g2 (1), Guajirolus/g1 (1), 

[1.1.14] Setae on outer surface of labrum

— transverse subapical row: Tetramerotarsata (not all) (6) {Turbanoculata (not all) (4)}, Atalophlebopectinata (not all) (2) 

— second transverse row: Atalophlebopectinata (not all) (2) 

— transverse row bent laterally-proximally: Edmundsula ()

— transverse row shifted proximally: Hermanellognatha (1), Dilatognathus (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1)

— transverse row interrupted medially: Hermanellognatha (1) Dilatognathus (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1)

— not forming transverse rows: part of Atalophlebopectinata (2) {Neochoroterpes (1), Notophlebia (1)}

— submedian pair: Tetramerotarsata (not all) (6)

— submedian pair absent: part of Tetramerotarsata (6) {Bugilliesia (1), part of Labiobaetis/f2=g1 (???), Pseudopannota/g2 (1), Guajirolus/g1 (1)}

— stick-shape: Isonychia/fg1 (2)

[1.1.15] Setae on distal margin of labrum

— stout: Leptophlebia/fg1 (not all) (2)

— not stout: Atalophleboculata (2)

[1.1.16] Median incision of labrum

— absent: part of Turbanoculata (4) {Raptobaetopus (1) ...}, part of Atalophleboculata (2) {Nathanella (), Thraulodes () ...}

— deep: Metreletus (4)

— widened: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ametropus (2)

— sharp: Turbanoculata (not all) (4)

— large V-shaped: part of Turbanoculata (4) {Pseudocentroptiloides/g2 (1), Callibaetis/fg1 (not all) (1)}

— with pair of sclerotized protuberances complementary with protuberance on hypopharynx: Callibaetis/fg1 (1)

— with flat denticles: Atalophleboculata (not all) (2) {Nathanella (), Megaglena (), Indialis ()

— without denticles: part of Atalophleboculata (2) {Castanophlebia (), Hermanellognatha (1), Sulawesia (),}

Mandibles [1.1.17–26]

[1.1.17] Mandibles

— lost initial asymmetry: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), Pseudiron (1), part of Behningia/fg1 (2), Vietnamella (2)

— inverted: Arthroplea (2), part of Radulapalpata (VAR)

[1.1.18] Each mandible

— elongate perpendicular to axis of articulation: Ameletus/fg1 (1), Nesameletus/f2=Metamonius/g2 (1), Rallidens (1)

— shortened perpendicular to axis of articulation: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Centroptiloides/g4 (1), Raptobaetopus (1), Pseudiron (1), Raptoheptagenia (1), Epeorus/fg3 (1), Anepeorus (1), Behningia/fg1 (2), part of Hyrtanella/f2=Crinitella/g1 (VAR), part of Melanemerella/fg1 (VAR), part of Teloganodes/f1=g3 (VAR), Dicercomyzon (2)

— elongate along axis of articulation: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1)

— flattened, with slender inciror and dentiseta: Atalophlebomaxillata () (not all) 

— with outer margin angulate: Hermanellognatha (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1)

— with tusk – see [1.1.20]

— with blank: Maculognathus (1)

[1.1.19] Mandibular setation

— on dorsal side setal field, proximally limited by arched row: Coloburiscus/fg1 (1)

— on outer side 2 transverse rows: Clypeocaenis/fg3 (3)

— on outer side longitudinal row: Tricorygnatha (1)

— on outer side middle tuft: Terpides (?), Castanophlebia (?), Aprionyx (?), Thraulus (part) (?), Sangpadubina (?), Choroterpes/g2 (not all) (?), Farrodes (?), Simothraulopsis (?), Miroculus (?), Hagenulus (?), Isca (?), Notophlebia (?), Sulawesia (?), Indialis/g1 (?), Megaglena (?), Deleatidium (?), Zephlebia (?), Lepegenia (?), Notachalcus (?), Tindea (?), Celiphlebia (?), Adenophlebia (?), Adenophlebioides (?), Massartella (?), Hapsiphlebia (?), Hagenulopsis (?), Askola (?), Rhigotopus (?), Penaphlebia (?), Dactylophlebia (?), Nousia (?), Nyangara (?), Atalomicria (?), Peterophlebia (?), Maheathrauluis (?), Hagenulodes (?), Radima (?), . 

— on outer side distal tuft: Thraulodes (?), Ulmeritoides (?), Choroterpes/g2 (part)-Neochoroterpes (?), Nonnullidens (part) (?), Petersula (part) (?)

— on outer side middle and distal tufts: Thraulus (part) (?), Nonnullidens (part) (?), Ulmeritus (?), Massartellopsis (?), Atopophlebia (?), Secochela (?), ~Meridialaris (?),  Nathanella (?), Kimminsula (?), Petersula (part) (?), [Belihuloya], [Wijestinhe]

— on outer side absent: Hermanellognatha (?) Tenagophila (?), 

— on ventral side arched row: Cryptoprosternata (3)

— on ventral side regular transverse arched row: Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (1A)

— on tusk – see [1.1.20]

— on median margin – see [1.1.23]

[1.1.20] Tusk

— present: Fimbriatotergaliae (not all) (8), Kalbaybaria () 

— absent: part of Fimbriatotergaliae (8) {Behningia/fg1 (13), Caenotergaliae (10)}

— curved medially: Potamanthus/fg1 (7), Euthyplocia/fg1 (2), Ichthybotus (1), Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (8)

— curved laterally: Ephemera/fg9 (2), Palingenia/f2=g1 (8)

— long: Anthopotamus (1), part of Rhoenanthus/g1 (VAR)

— short: Potamanthus/fg3 (1), part of Rhoenanthus/g1 (VAR), Afromera/g1 (1)

— round in section: Ephemera/fg9 (2)

— with lateral serrate ridge: Palingenia/f2=g1 (2)

— with spine-like seta on each denticle: Palingenia/f2=g1 (not all) (2) {Pentagenia (P), Chankagenesia (P), Anagenesia/g2 (P), Cheirogenesia (P)}

— without spine-like seta on denticle: part of Palingenia/f2=g1 (2) {Palingenia/f4=g3 (1), Mortogenesia (1), Plethogenesia (2)}

— with tubercles dorsally and laterally: Ichthybotus (1), Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3 (7)

— with denticles on inner side: Campsurus/fg1 (1)

— with largest denticle in proximal part of inner side: part of Campsurus/fg3 (P)

— with largest denticle in distal part of inner side: Tortopus (2)

— specialized as biting: Asthenopus/fg1 (1)

— with long setae on inner side: Euthyplocia/fg1 (2)

[1.1.21] Incisor (apical canine of mandible)

— diminished: Discoglossata (2), Campsurus/fg1 (1)

— shortened: Pseudopannota/g2 (2), Guajirolus/g1 (2),

— enlarged: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (1), Vietnamella (2)

— with combs: Rallidens (1)

— with 3 apical denticles: Heptagenia/f6=g5 (not all) (1)

— stout: Epeorus/fg3 (1)

— of right mandible with large denticle near apex: Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2)

— of right mandible with process at base: Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3 (1)

[1.1.22] Kinetodontium (subapical canine of mandible)

— vestigial: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (1), Vietnamella (2)

— diminished: Discoglossata (2), Campsurus/fg1 (1)

— jointed: Siphlaenigma (P)

— not jointed: Turbanoculata (5)

— elongate: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

— stout: Epeorus/fg3 (1)

[1.1.23] Median margin (between kinetodontium and mola)

— bears prostheca – see [1.1.24–25]

— projected proximad of prostheca: Pseudopannota/g2 (3), Guajirolus/g1 (3)

— with setae: Turbanoculata (not all) (6) {Protopatellata (not all) (P) {part of Indocloeon (3), }, Cloeon/fg1 (P), Cheleocloeon (P), ...}, Heptagennota (not all) (7) {Heptagenia/f6=g5 (not all) (1), Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2), Epeorus/fg3 (1)}

— without setae: Siphlaenigma (P), part of Turbanoculata (6) {part of Indocloeon (3), Baetopus/g1 (), Baetofemorata (6), Labiobaetis/f1 (??), ...} 

[1.1.24] Prostheca of left mandible

— brush-like: Siphlaenigma (P)

— stick-like: Turbanoculata (6)

— bifid: Callibaetis/fg1 (2)

— bristle-like: Ameletus/fg1 (1), Heptagennota (not all) (7) {Heptagenia/f6=g5 (1), Epeorus/fg3 (1)}

— absent: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), part of Heptagennota (7) {Pseudiron (1)}

[1.1.25] Prostheca of right mandible

— brush-like: Siphlaenigma (P)

— stick-like, dentate: Turbanoculata (not all) (6) {Indocloeon (3), Cloeon/fg1 (P), Baetofemorata (5), Labiobaetis/f1=Pseudopannota/g1 (???), ?Nigrobaetis/g2 (not all) (?), Camelobaetidius/g1 (P)}

— bifurcate: part of Turbanoculata (6) {Centroptiloides/?* (?), ?Baetopus/g? (not all) (?), Callibaetis/fg1 (2), part of Cloeodes/g1 (), ?Nigrobaetis/fg2 (not all) (?), Takobia/g1 (?), ??Andesiops ()

— bristle-like, not dentate: part of Turbanoculata (6) {Rhithrocloeon/fg4 (1), Baetodes/g1 ()}

— absent: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ameletus/fg1 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), Heptagennota (7) {Pseudiron (1)}

[1.1.26] Mola

— absent: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1)

— without grater: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), Pseudiron (1), Raptoheptagenia (1), Acanthomola (1), Anepeorus (1), Behningia/fg1 (2)

— left with petiolate projections: Jubabaetis/g1 (1)

Superlinguae [1.1.27]

[1.1.27] Superlinguae

— vestigial or absent: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), Pseudiron (1), Raptoheptagenia (1), Anepeorus (1)

— curved laterally: Arthroplea (7), Heptagenia/f5=g4 (1), Raptoheptagenia (3), Dicercomyzon (2)

— curved laterally and pointed: Habrophlebia/fg1 (1), Jappa/g1 ()

— strongly curved laterally: Stenonema/g1 (1)

— laterally concave, apically rounded: Kageronia (1)

— laterally concave, apically angulate: Dacnogenia (3)

— laterally with subapical incision: Heptagenia/f8=g7 (1)

— laterally with subbasal concavity: Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2)

— widened apically: Cinygma (4)

— with divergent margins: Bleptus (4), Ironodes (3)

— with maximum width in middle and convergent toward apex: Rhithrogena/fg2 (5), Epeorus/fg3 (3)

— parallel-sided: Paegniodes (P)

Hypopharynx [1.1.28]

[1.1.28] Hypopharynx

— truncate: Metretopus/fg1 (2)

— incised apically: Ametropus (2)

— with sclerotized protuberance complementary with pair of protuberances on labrum: Callibaetis/fg1 (1)

— with lateral portions projected distally: Guajirolus/g1 (4)

— shortened: Dacnogenia (1)

— with pair of subapical lateral projections: Calliarcys (1)

— with pair of subbasal lateral projections: Atalophlebolinguata (1)

— without lateral projections: Castanophlebia (P)

Maxillae
Maxilla [1.1.29], ventral setae [1.1.30], apical setae [1.1.31–32], canines [1.1.33–34], setae of median margin [1.1.35–40], maxillary palp [1.1.41–46]

[1.1.29] Maxilla

— filtering [1.1.31–32]: Ameletus/fg1 (1), Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (2), part of Ephemerella/fg1 (16) {Cincticostella/g2 (1), Teloganopsis/g1 (1), Allenhyphes (2), Haplohyphes (1)}, Leptophlebia/fg1 (1)

— scraping: part of Ephemerella/fg1 (16) {Dicercomyzon (2)}

— diminished: Behningia/fg2 (2)

— widened: Rallidens (2)

— elongate-rectangle: Radulapalpata (not all) (3) {Bleptus (P), Ironodes (P), Paegniodes (P)}

— narrowed toward apex: Discoglossata (2)

— truncate (with apical margin formed by expansion of outer margin): Radulapalpata (not all) (3), Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (2), part of Ephemerella/fg1 (16), Leptophlebia/fg1 (1)

— truncate (with apical margin formed by expansion of inner margin): Tricorygnatha (1)

— with acute median-apical angle: Isonychia/fg1 (10), Discoglossata (2), Rhithrogena/fg2 (1), Epeorus/fg3 (1)

— with tusk-like process on median-apical angle: part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {part of Atalophleboadentata (1) {Hagenulus/fg3 (1), Hermanellognatha (not all) (1), Dilatognathus (1)}, Notophlebia (?)}

— with 5 movable appendages: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

— with gill at joining of cardo and stipes [1d]: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (7), Rallidens (4)

— with gill at joining with head [1d]: Eusetisura (3)

Ventral setae of maxilla [1.1.30-31]

[1.1.30] Setae on ventral side of maxilla

— form transverse row: Tricorygnatha (1)

— form longitudinal row: Branchitergaliae (1)

— longitudinal row straight: Cinygma (5), Paegniodes (P), Epeorus/fg1 (6) {Epeorus/fg3 (1)}

— longitudinal row slightly curved laterally: Heptagenia/f6=g5 (2)

— longitudinal row strongly curved laterally: Rhithrogena/fg2 (1)

— irregular field: Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2)

Apical setae of maxilla [1.1.31–32]

[1.1.31] Setae of apical-ventral row (among all Ephemeroptera)

— absent: Posteritorna (7), Siphlonisca (1), Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ametropus (2), part of Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (2), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), Rallidens (2), Eusetisura (4), Pseudiron (1), Arthroplea (1), Raptoheptagenia (1), Cinygma (2), Epeorus/fg3 (1), Acanthomola (1), Anepeorus (1), Fimbriatotergaliae (11), Ephemerella/fg1 (16), part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {Hermanellognatha (1)}

— vestigial: Dipteromimus (1), Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (not all) (2), Stenonema/g2 (VAR), Epeorus/fg1 (not all) (5) {Bleptus (P), Ironodes (P)}, part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {Dilatognathus (1), Isca/g1 ()}

— non-pectinate, transferred ventrally: Metretopus/fg1 (2), Tetramerotarsata (7)

— non-pectinate or pectinate: Siphlonurus/fg1 (not all) (P), Vetulata (P)

— pectinate elongate: Ameletus/fg1 (1), Leptophlebia/fg1 (not all) (1)

— pectinate oblique brush-shaped: Radulapalpata (not all) (3)

— form curved rows: part of Leptophlebia/fg1 () {...?} 

— form two separated rows: part of Leptophlebia/fg1 () {Hagenulus/fg2 (), }

— form shortened row: part of Leptophlebia/fg1 () {Isca/g1 (not all) ()}

[1.1.32] Setae on apical side of maxilla (apart of apical-ventral row – see [1.1.31])

— absent: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (2), Ameletopsis/fg1 (1), Raptoheptagenia (1), Epeorus/fg3 (1)

— long, irregular: Arthroplea (1), Cinygma (2), Bleptus (P), Ironodes (P)

— long, form regular field not adjacent to canines: Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (2), Clypeocaenis/fg1 (1)

— long, form regular field adjacent to canines: Potamanthus/fg1 (8), Euthyplocia/fg1 (6), Ephemerella/fg1 (16) {Cincticostella/g1 (1) {Cincticostella/g2 (1)}, Teloganopsis/g1 (1)}, Leptophlebia/fg1 (1)

— long, form regular row adjacent to canines: Pseudopannota/g2 (4)

— short, scraping: Dicercomyzon (2)

Apical canines of maxilla [1.1.33–34]

[1.1.33] Number of maxillary canines (among all Ephemeroptera)

— 0: Ameletus/fg1 (1), part of Teloganopsis/g1 (1), Tricorygnatha (1), Dicercomyzon (2), part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {Atalophleboadentata (1)}

— 1: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Discoglossata (2), Arthroplea (1), Cinygma (2), Behningia/fg2 (2), Palingenia/f2=g1 (3), Vietnamella (5), Teloganodes/f1=g3 (3)

— 2: Metretopus/fg1 (2), Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Ametropus (2), Isonychia/fg1 (10), Pseudiron (1), Hexagenia/g1 (2), Protobehningia (P), part of Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (2)

— 3: Baetisca/f2=g1 (P), Siphlonurus/fg1 (P), Dipteromimus (P), Tetramerotarsata (P), Vetulata (P), Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (2), Rallidens (2), Coloburiscus/fg1 (not all) (8), Heptagenia/f5=g4 (P), Rhithrogena/fg1 (P), Potamanthus/fg1 (P), Euthyplocia/fg1 (P), Ichthybotus (P), Ephemera/fg10 (P), Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (not all) (2), Caenotergaliae (P), Ephemerella/fg2 (not all) (P), Teloganella (P), Ephemerythus (P), Tricorythodes/fg1 (P), Leptohyphes/fg2 (P), Allenhyphes (2), Leptophlebia/fg1 (not all) (1) {pm.Leptophlebia/fg2 (P)}

[1.1.34] Form of maxillary canines

— in one plane with dentisetae: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1)

— stout: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (2)

— flat and wide: Rallidens (2)

— strongly enlarged: Epeorus/fg3 (1)

— diminished: Teloganopsis/g1 (1)

— completely fused together: Vietnamella (5), Teloganodes/f1=g3 (3)

— separated by impression: Cincticostella/g1 (1)

— ventral canine flattened and denticulate: Cincticostella/g2 (1)

Setae of inner (median) margin of maxilla [1.1.35–40]

[1.1.35] Setae of inner-ventral row

— absent: Tricorygnatha (1)

— 3: Teloganodes/f1=g3 (3)

— distal seta canine-like: Discoglossata (2)

[1.1.36] Setae of inner-dorsal row

— 2: Teloganodes/f1=g3 (3)

— on distal margin: Tricorygnatha (1)

— dentisetae – see [1.1.37–40]

[1.1.37] Number of dentisetae (among all Ephemeroptera)

— 0: part of Bidentiseta (1) {Protobehningia (3), part of Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (2), Clypeocaenis/g2?3 (?), part of Leptophlebia/ fg1 (1) {part of Atalophlebopectinata (1) {part of Atalophlebomaxillata (1) {Hermanellognatha (1), Dilatognathus (1)}}}}

— 1: Ameletus/fg1 (1), part of Bidentiseta (1) {part of Isonychia/fg1 (2), Palingenia/f2=g1 (3), Tricorygnatha (1), Dicercomyzon (2), part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {Atalophlebomaxillata (not all) (1)}

— 2: part of Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), part of Tetramerotarsata (P) {Baetodes/g1 (1)}, Bidentiseta (not all) (1) {Coloburiscus/fg1 (not all) (8), Isonychia/fg1 (not all) (2), Heptagennota (P), Potamanthus/fg1 (P), Euthyplocia/fg1 (P), Ichthybotus (P), Ephemera/fg9 (P), Behningia/fg2 (P), Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (not all) (2), Caenotergaliae (P), Ephemerella/fg2 (P), Ephemerythus (P), Machadorythus (P), Tricorythodes/fg1 (P), Leptohyphes/fg2 (P), Allenhyphes (2), Vietnamella (5), Teloganella (P), Teloganodes/f1=g3 (3), Leptophlebia/fg1 (not all) (1) {Leptophlebia/fg2 (P), Atalophlebopectinata (not all) (1) {Habrophlebia/fg1 (P), Terpides/fg1 (14)}}

— 3: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Anteritorna (not all) (2) {Tridentiseta (not all) (P) {Siphlonurus/fg1 (P), Dipteromimus (P), Metretopus/fg1 (P), Acanthametropus/fg1 (not all) (1), Ametropus (2), Tetramerotarsata (not all) (P), Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (3), Vetulata (P), Rallidens (2)}, part of Coloburiscus/fg1 (8)

— more than 3: Posteritorna (not all) (P) {Baetisca/f2=g1 (P)}

— indeterminate: Posteritorna (not all) (P) {Baetisca/f2=g1 (P)}, part of Anteritorna (2) {part of Bidentiseta (1) {Coloburiscus/fg1 (8)}}

[1.1.38] 1st dentiseta (distal)

— absent: part of Bidentiseta (1) {part of Isonychia/fg1 (2), Palingenia/f2=g1 (3), Tricorygnatha (1), Dicercomyzon (2), part of Leptophlebia/fg1 (1) {part of Atalophlebopectinata (1) {Atalophlebomaxillata (1)}}

— vestigial: Isonychia/fg1 (not all) (2), Euthyplocia/fg1 (P), Hexagenia/g1 (2)

— canine-like: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1)

— massive, pressed to canines: part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Monocentroptilum (), ...}, Nesameletus/f2=Metamonius/g2 (2)

— branched from base: Atopopus/g1 (1)

— not branched: Ecdyonurus/fg2 (P), Afghanurus/g1 (P)

[1.1.39] 2nd dentiseta (proximal in Bidentiseta)

— absent: part of Atalophlebopectinata (1) {part of Atalophlebomaxillata (1) {Hermanellognatha (1), Dilatognathus (1)}}

— canine-like: Acanthametropus/fg1 (1)

— on common base with 3rd: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (3)

— on common plate with 3rd: Nesameletus/f2=Metamonius/g2 (3)

— straight: Isonychia/fg1 (2)

— widened and dentate: Pseudiron (1)

— bifurcate: Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2)

— pectinate: Teloganodes/f1=g3 (3), Atalophlebopectinata (1)

[1.1.40] 3rd dentiseta (proximal in Tridentiseta)

— absent: part of Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Bidentiseta (1)

— on common base with 2nd: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (3)

— on common plate with 2nd: Nesameletus/f2=Metamonius/g2 (3)

Maxillary palp [1.1.41–46]

[1.1.41] Maxillary palp

— absent (among all Ephemeroptera): Madecocercus (1), part of Ephemerella/fg1 (1) {part of Torleya/g1 (1), Sparsorythus (1)}

— vestigial, without muscles: Acanthametropus/fg2 (2), Ephemerella/fg1 (not all) (1)

— secondarily elongate: Tricorygnatha (1), Machadorythus (3)

— strongly elongate: Arthroplea (1)

— strongly enlarged: Behningia/fg2 (2)

— specialized as scraping: Rhithrogena/fg1 (1)

[1.1.42] Number of segments in maxillary palp (among all Ephemeroptera)

— 1: Acanthametropus/fg2 (2), part of Ephemerella/fg1 (1)

— 2: part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Similicloeon (), Baetopus/g1 (), Baetungulata (3), Callibaetisfg3 (3), ?part of Cloeodes/g1 ()}, part of Eusetisura (2) {Isonychia/fg1 (2), Discoglossata (2)}, Arthroplea (1), Rhithrogena/fg1 (1), Anepeorus (2), part of Ephemera/fg9 (P), Cryptoprosternata (4), Brachycercus/f1=g3 (1), Clypeocaenis/fg2 (1)

— 3: Posteritorna (P), Siphlonurus/fg1 (P), Dipteromimus (P), Ameletus/fg1 (P), Metretopus/fg1 (2), Analetris (P), Ametropus (P), Siphlaenigma (2), Turbanoculata (not all) (VAR) {Callibaetoides (P), Indocloeon (not all) (4), Centroptilum (), ?part of Cloeodes/g1 (), ...?}, Vetulata (P), Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (4), Rallidens (P), Eusetisura (not all) (2) {Coloburiscus/fg1 (P)}, Pseudiron (P), Heptagenia/f5=g4 (P), Potamanthus/fg1 (P), Euthyplocia/fg1 (P), Ichthybotus (P), Ephemera/fg9 (not all) (P), Behningia/fg1 (P), Neoephemera/fg1 (P), Caenis/f5=g3 (P), Amercaenis (P), Caenopsella/g1 (P), Brasiliocaenis (P), Caenoculis (P), Ephemerella/fg1 (not all) (1), Leptophlebia/fg1 (P)

— looks as 3 because 1st segment is divided to two: part of Baetungulata (3) {Pseudopannota/g2 (6), Guajirolus/g1 (6)}

— many secondary segments: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

[1.1.43] 1st segment of maxillary palp

— with gill [1d]: ?Afrobaetodes (?)

— shortened: Cryptoprosternata (4) {Discoglossata (2)}

— elongate: Arthroplea (1)

— with fan-form flexor attached to outer margin: Rhithrogena/fg1 (1)

— with fan-form flexor attached to inner margin: Behningia/fg2 (2)

[1.1.44] Distal (2nd+3rd) segment of 2-segmented maxillary palp

— divided into secondary segments: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

— thickened: Eusetisura (2), Cryptoprosternata (4)

— long, with 2 rows of filtering setae: Arthroplea (1)

— with scraping setae: Rhithrogena/fg1 (1)

— with scraping setae occupying nearly whole length of segment: Rhithrogena/fg3 (1)

— with pigmented ridge bordering field of scraping setae: Rhithrogena/fg2 (2)

[1.1.45] 2nd segment of 3-segmented maxillary palp

— shortened: Metretopus/fg1 (2), Clypeocaenis/fg1 (1)

— curved: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1)

[1.1.46] 3rd segment of 3-segmented maxillary palp

— shortened: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (4), Siphlaenigma (2), Tricorygnatha (1)

— vestigial: Heptagenia/f5=g4 (P)

— vestigial small: Rhithrocloeon/fg1 (not all) (2) Heptagenia/f6=g5 (3)

— vestigial triangular: Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2)

— with transverse rows of long setae: Hermanellognatha (1) 

— with irregular long setae: Hagenulus/fg3 (?), Dilatognathus (1), Edmundsula ()

    Labium
Labium [1.1.47], submentum [1.1.48], mentum [1.1.49], glossae [1.1.50–51], paraglossae [1.1.52–53], labial palps [1.1.54–59]

[1.1.47] Labium

— enlarged: Pseudocentroptiloides/g1 (1), Indobaetis ()

— with gills [1d]: Siphluriscus (1), part of Eusetisura (3)

— scraping: Radulapalpata (not all) (1)

— raptorial: Raptoheptagenia (1)

— diminished: Behningia/fg2 (2)

— wide: Dicercomyzon (2)

[1.1.48] Submentum

— enlarged, cover labial palps: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1)

— with pair of flat lateral lobes: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

— shortened: Tricorygnatha (1)

— membranous without muscles: Pentamerotarsata (1)

[1.1.49] Mentum

— enlarged, with palpi adductors transverse: Radulapalpata (1)

— with glossal and paraglossal muscles attached at one point: Indocloeon (5)

— with deep cleft between glossae: Teloganella (1)

Glossae [1.1.50–51]

[1.1.50] Glossae

— fused together forming disc: Discoglossata (2)

— fused with mentum and paraglossae: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Tricorygnatha (1) Machadorythus (4), part of Coryphorus ()

— curved or produced ventrally: Metretopus/fg1 (2), Miroculis/g1 (), Hapsiphlebia/g1 () 

— curved ventro-laterally: Terpides/g1 (2), Castanophlebia (2)

— not curved ventrally: Hermanelandria (P), Hagenulus/fg2 (?), 

— petiolate: Dipteromimus (1)

— basally widened ventrad of paraglossae, distally dorsad of paraglossae: Turbanoculata (7)

— shortened: part of Turbanoculata (7) {Pseudocentroptiloides/g1 () ...}

— narrowed proximally: Raptobaetopus (1) 

— projected laterad of paraglossae: Discoglossata (2)

— truncate, with apical row of flat setae: Ameletus/fg2 (1)

— thickened and truncate: Chiloporter (1)

— elongate and narrowed, with stout setae on apex: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (5)

— crescent: Arthroplea (1)

— semicircular: Kageronia (2)

— curved medially: Heptagenia/f8=g7 (2), Stenonema/g1 (4)

— pyramidal: Radulapalpata (not all) (1) {Dacnogenia (P), Paegniodes (P), Rhithrogena/fg2 (P), Epeorus/fg2 (P)}

— rhomboid: Ecdyonurus/fg1 (2)

— widening distally, roundish-triangular: Cinygma (3)

— roundish: Bleptus (1)

— shortened: Behningia/fg2 (2)

[1.1.51] Setation of glossa

— stout apical setae: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (5)

— 2 stout short setae on apex: Platybaetis (1) 

Paraglossae [1.1.52–53]

[1.1.52] Paraglossae

— fused with mentum and glossae: Prosopistoma/f1=g2 (1), Tricorygnatha (1), Machadorythus (4), part of Coryphorus ()

— not separated from mentum: Posteritorna (7), Ephemerella/fg1 (2)

— curved ventrally: Metretopus/fg1 (2)

— elongate and narrowed: Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (5)

— petiolate: Dipteromimus (1)

— parallel-sided: Turbanoculata (not all) (7) 

— much wider and longer than glossae: part of Turbanoculata (7) {Labiobaetis/f2=g1 (1), Americabaetis (), Baetodes/g1 () ... }

— hidden in cavities on dorsal side of glossal disc: Discoglossata (2)

— crescent: Arthroplea (1), Campsurus/fg1 (2)

— widened: Radulapalpata (1), Dicercomyzon (2)

— extended proximally: Hexagenia/fg1 (1)

— shortened: Behningia/fg2 (2)

[1.1.53] Setation of paraglossa

— longitudinal row of setae: Tetramerotarsata (8)

— apical setae transferred ventrally: Rhithrocloeon/fg3 (1)    

Labial palps [1.1.54–59]

[1.1.54] Labial palp

— specialized as scraping: Radulapalpata (1)

— strongly enlarged: Behningia/fg2 (2)

— enormously elongate: Leentvaaria (1)

[1.1.55] Number of segments of labial palp (among all Ephemeroptera)

— 2: Metretopus/fg1 (2), part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Mutelocloeon (), Baetopus/g1 ()}, part of Eusetisura (2) {Isonychia/fg1 (2), Discoglossata (2)}, Heptagennota (8) {Pseudiron (1), Arthroplea (1), Radulapalpata (1)}, part of Behningia/fg1 (2) Cryptoprosternata (4), Brachycercus/f1=g3 (2)

— 3: Posteritorna (P), Siphlonurus/fg1 (P), Dipteromimus (P), Ameletus/fg1 (P), Acanthametropus/fg1 (P), Vetulata (P), Nesameletus/f1=Metamonius/g1 (P), Rallidens (P), Siphlaenigma (3), Turbanoculata (not all) (VAR), Ametropus (P), Eusetisura (not all) (2) {Coloburiscus/fg1 (P)}, Potamanthus/fg1 (P), Euthyplocia/fg1 (P), Ichthybotus (P), Ephemera/fg9 (P), Behningia/fg1 (not all) (2), Neoephemera/fg1 (P), Caenis/f3=g1 (P), Ephemerella/fg1 (not all) (3), Leptophlebia/fg1 (P)

— many secondary segments: Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

[1.1.56] 1st segment of labial palp

— shortened: Cryptoprosternata (4)

— widened, but with weak muscles: Pseudiron (1)

— widened, with fan-form flexor attached to outer margin: Ametropus (2), Radulapalpata (1)

— widened, with fan-form flexor attached to inner margin: Behningia/fg2 (2)

— enormously elongate: Leentvaaria (1)

[1.1.57] 2nd+3rd segment of 2-segmented labial palp

— divided into secondary segments:Ameletopsis/fg1 (1)

— thickened: Metretopus/fg1 (2), Baetopus/g1 (), Eusetisura (2), Cryptoprosternata (4)

— widest near base: Raptobaetopus (1)

— widest near middle: Metretopus/fg2 (3)

— widest near apex: Siphloplecton (3), Metreplecton (3)

— with filtering setae: Arthroplea (1), Isonychia/fg1 (2)

— scraping: Radulapalpata (not all) (1)

— with field of scraping setae terminating at distance from sclerotized ridge: Kageronia (3), Ecdyonurus/fg1 (5), Rhithrogena/fg1 (4)

— with field of scraping setae terminating close to sclerotized ridge: Heptagenia/f7=g6 (1), Cinygma (6)

— in form of sclerotized hook: Raptoheptagenia (1)

— with bifurcate dorsal setae: Rhithrogena/fg1 (2)

[1.1.58] 2nd segment of 3-segmented labial palp

— enormously elongate: Leentvaaria (1)

— widened or with inner-apical projection: Baetisca/f3=g2 (3), Parameletus/fg2 (1), Ametropus (2), Acanthametropus/fg1 (1), Siphlaenigma (3), Crassabwa/g1 (1), Indocloeon (6), Bugilliesia (2), Cheleocloeon (9), Americabaetis (), Baetofemorata (not all) (7), Camelobaetidius/g1 (), Labiobaetis/f2=g1 (2), Guajirolus/g1 (7),}

— slightly widened inner-apically («Afroptilum-type»): Monocentroptilum (2), Afroptilum, Dicentroptilum, Xyrodromeus, Afroptiloides, Platycloeon, Peuhlella 

— with row of long setae on outer side: Tricorygnatha (1), Dilatognathus (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1)

— with row of long setae on dorsal side: Dilatognathus (1), Hagenulus/fg3 (1)

— without muscle (among all Ephemeroptera, including 2-segmented palps – see [1.1.55]): Metretopus/fg1 (2), part of Turbanoculata (VAR) {Mutelocloeon (?), Baetopus/g1 (?) Baetiella/g1 (1), part of Acentrella/fg1 (1)}, Heptagennota (8), part of Ephemera/fg9 (P), Cryptoprosternata (4), Behningia/fg1 (2), Brachycercus/f1=g3 (2), Ephemerella/fg1 (3)

— longer on outer side: Callibaetis/fg1 (4)

— diminished: Tricorygnatha (1)

[1.1.59] 3rd segment of 3-segmented labial palp

— truncate: Centroptilum (), Cloeon/fg1 ()

— truncate and widened: Centroptilum (), part of Cloeon/fg1 {part of Cloeon/fg2 (), part of Similicloeon (), Procloeon/g1 ()}

— pointed: Paracloeodes ()

— diminished: Tricorygnatha (1)

— widened and roundish: Dabulamanzia (1)

— together with second form integral figure:  Callibaetis/fg1 (4) 

— with row of long setae on outer side: Dilatognathus (1)

— with row of long setae on inner side: Dilatognathus (1)

— with spine-like setae on inner side: Edmundsula ()