CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

z 

Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Fimbriatotergaliae Fossoriae Cryptoprosternata - Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2)

Nomen hierarchicum: Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 [f:1900; g:1802] (sine Palingenia; incl. Campsurus)

In circumscription fits:

 fam. Polymitarcidae: Edmunds & Traver 1954a: 239

 Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2: Kluge 2000: 252


References. Edmunds & Allen & Peters 1963: *; Tshernova 1970: * *; Edmunds & Jensen & Berner 1976: * *; Kluge 2004: * * *


Autapomorphies of Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2.

(1) In larva rows of long setae on mandibles and fore legs [see Cryptoprosternata (3AD)] are regular, U-shaped, have a peculiar form (Kluge 2004: Fig.76:B, 77:A,C, 79:CD). (A) Mandible has a regular U-shaped row of setae: curvation of this row is situated on lateral side of mandible, and its two arms go parallel one another toward ventral side of mandible across tusk base. (B) Inner side of fore femur in its proximal part has a regular U-shaped row of setae: curvation of this row is situated close to base of femur, and its two arms do longitudinally in distal direction. (C) On fore side of fore tibia the regular proximal oblique row of setae is strongly curved at both its ends and is continued distally in a form of two regular longitudinal rows. (D) Inner side of tibia has a regular U-shaped row of setae, curvation of this row is situated near base of tibia, and its two arms go longitudinally in distal direction. Shape of setal rows (A) and (C) is a unique apomorphy, while setal rows (B) and (D) have some similarity with Eusetisura.

(2) Maxilla is angulate: its apical side (laterad of canines) forms an obtuse or right angle with lateral side; apical side is wide, straight, and bears a field of very densely situated long filtering setae (Eaton 18831888: Pls.25,28); unlike Potamanthus/fg1, Euthyplocia/fg1 and some others (see Index of characters [1.1.32]), this field of setae is not so closely adjacent to canines. In other Fossoriae apical side of maxilla also bears numerous long setae, but they do not form such dens and distinctly outlined field. Canines and dentisetae are slender, straight and brought together at apical-inner angle; all 3 canines and 2 dentisetae [see Bidentiseta (1)] can be developed (in Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3), sometimes middle canine is lost (in some Campsurus/fg1), or both dentisetae are lost (in adusta [Povilla]).

(3) Winged stages are short-living: At least imaginal middle and hind legs are always non-functional (but functional subimaginal middle and hind legs are retained in male Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2). Pterothorax is modified, mesonotal suture is extremely stretched posteriorly up to disappearance (Kluge 2004: Fig.78:DF); subimaginal cuticle lost its colour pattern [see Fimbriatotergaliae (2)], being colourless or evenly pigmented. Non-unique apomorphies (see Index of characters [2], [2.2.8] and [2.2.14]); among Cryptoprosternata the same in Palingenia/f3=g2. Moult from subimago to imago can take place in male only (in Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3) or is retained in both sexes (in Campsurus/fg1).

(4) On fore wing bifurcation of MA [initially situated in middle of MA see Euephemeroptera (2)] is transferred proximally (Kluge 2004: Fig.78, 79, 80). Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [2.2.43]); among Fimbriatotergaliae the same in Euthyplocia/fg1, Behningia/fg1 and Anagenesia/g1.

(5) Cubital field of fore wing with one or several intercalaries alternating as concave and convex (Kluge 2004: Fig. 78, 79, 80); sigmoid veins going to basitornal margin [see Anteritorna (1)], can arise from the most posterior of these intercalaries (the same in some Euthyplocia/fg1), or absent (the same in some other Ephemeroptera see Index of characters [2.2.51]).

(6) In male imago claws of fore leg of male are blunt, more or less elongate [in subimago they are either ephemeropteroid (in Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/f3), or also blunt (in Campsurus/fg1)].

(7) 1st segment of gonostylus is not expressed, being fused with second; thus gonostylus is 3-segmented (in Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3) or 1-segmented (in Campsurus/fg3). Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [2.3.10]). Some authors erroneously take for 1st segment a pedestal of gonostylus (which contains muscles); in most Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 gonostylus pedestal is long, separated from remainder part of styliger and resembles a segment. In Campsurus/fg2 genitals undergone further modification (see below).

Character of Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 of unclear phylogenetic status.

(8) Mandibular tusks [see Fimbriatotergaliae (8)] are curved medially (Kluge 2004: Fig.76:C, 79:CD). The same in Ichthybotus, Potamanthus/fg1 and Euthyplocia/fg1; probably symplesiomorphy.

Variable character of Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2. In imago on amphitornal margin of wings can be more or less developed setae (Kluge 2004: Fig.78:AB) similar to that of subimago; non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [2.2.27]).

Size. Fore wing length 520 mm.

Distribution. Holarctic, Oriental, Neotropical and Afrotropical Regions.


The taxon Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 is divided into:

1. Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3

1.1. Eopolymitarcys/g(1)

1.2. Polymitarcys/f3=Ephoron/g4

2. Campsurus/fg1
2.1. Asthenopus/fg1

2.2. Campsurus/fg2

2.2.1. Campsurus/fg3

2.2.2. Tortopus/g(1)

2.2.2.1. Tortopus/g2

2.2.2.2. Tortopsis