CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

z 

Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Fimbriatotergaliae Fossoriae Cryptoprosternata Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 - Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3)

Nomen hierarchicum: Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3 [f:1900; g:1802] (sine Campsurus; incl. Eopolymitarcys)

In circumscription fits:

 gen. Polymitarcys: Tshernova 1952: 239

 gen. Ephoron: Edmunds & Traver 1954a: 239

 subfam. Polymitarcinae: Lestage 1917: 258

 subfam. Ephoroninae: Needham & Traver & Hsu 1935: 241

 fam. Polymitarcidae: Tshernova 1980: 32

 Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3: Kluge 2004: 258


References. Eaton 18831888: ; McCafferty 1975: ; Needham & Traver & Hsu 1935: * *; Edmunds & Allen & Peters 1963: *; Koss 1968: ; Koss & Edmunds 1974: ; Edmunds & Jensen & Berner 1976: * *; Ishiwata 1996: ; Kluge 2004: * * * *


Autapomorphies of Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3.

(1) On inner side of right mandible between incisor and kinetodontium, is present a denticle-shape or finger-shape process (Ishiwata 1996: Fig.1215). Unique apomorphy.

(2) Larval fore leg [specialized as burrowing see Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (1)] has rows of roundish strongly sclerotized wart-shape tubercles: a short row at proximal part of inner side of femur and two long longitudinal rows on posterior side of tibia one nearer to inner margin, another nearer to outer margin (Kluge 2004: Fig.77).

(3) Vestige of tergalius I [initially bilamellate see Cryptoprosternata (6)] is unilamellate. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.3.33]).

(4) On hind wing between RA and RS [which forms a triad see Euplectoptera (1)] is present a long additional intercalary vein (Kluge 2004: Fig.78:B); this vein is convex like RA, thus it breaks the regularity in alternating of convex and concave veins typical for mayfly wings. This additional intercalary vein is distinct, integral and very long in male, while in female it can be interrupted or absent. Unique apomorphy: in other mayflies such additional intercalaries are usually absent, rarely present in all spaces between longitudinal and primary intercalary veins (Kluge 2004: Fig.81:B).

(5) Egg with one or two polar caps of unique structure: external surface of such cap bears numerous anchors, each anchor consists of a short slightly coiled thread terminating by a knob; these knobs can be pressed one to another covering the cap from outside; the cap is situated on a short stem formed by numerous fibrils fused together; base of this stem is surrounded by a collar a crater-like elevation of chorion (Ishiwata 1996: Fig.2229). In Polymitarcys/f3=Ephoron/g4 only one pole bears such cap, and in Eopolymitarcys each of two poles has a cap.

Externally the polar cap of Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3 resembles a bunch of polar anchors in Ametropus (which are not fused in a cap), and differs from simple polar caps of some Euthyplocia/fg1, Potamanthus/fg1, Caenotergaliae and Ephemerella/fg1 (see Index of characters [3.6]).

(6) Moult from subimago to imago takes place in male only; female does not moult, and lies eggs being retained in subimaginal stage [imago and subimago of both sexes are short-living with non-functional legs see Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (3)]. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [2]).

Character of Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3 of unclear phylogenetic status.

(7) Mandibular tusks [curved medially see Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (8)] bear numerous tubercles on dorsal and lateral side; unlike Campsurus/fg1, there are no denticles on inner side (Kluge 2004: Fig.76:BC). The same in Ichthybotus; possibly plesiomorphy within Fossoriae.

Plesiomorphies of Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3 (unlike Campsurus/fg1). Larval (and adult) patella-tibial suture is developed on middle and hind legs. Larval propleura [vestigial see Furcatergaliae (1)] retain movable articulation with pronotum. Larval fore tarsus is normally developed and articulated with tibia (Kluge 2004: Fig.77:A,C).

In imago and subimago: Furcasternal protuberances of mesothorax are contiguous (Kluge 2004: Fig. 78:D). On fore wing RS with complete set of veins, bifurcation of MA is situated at a distance from wing base; on hind wing in costal field a series of crossveins of equal thickness is present, MP with bifurcation (Kluge 2004: Fig.78:AB). While in imago legs are non-functional [see Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (3)], in male subimago middle and hind legs retain ability to function, because of this male moults on the bank, keeping by its legs on substrate, and exuviae represent an integral case [female does not moult and its subimaginal legs are non-functional see (6)]. Claws are ephemeropteroid [except for male imaginal fore legs see Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (6)]. Gonostylus with 2 distal segments [i.e. 3-segmented see Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (7)]. Female imaginal and subimaginal paracercus is subequal to cerci [while male paracercus is vestigial see Cryptoprosternata (5)].

Size. Fore wing length 1018 mm.

Distribution. Holarctic, Oriental and Afrotropical Regions.


The taxon Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3 is divided into:

1. Eopolymitarcys

2. Polymitarcys/f3=Ephoron/g4