Panephemeroptera, or Ephemeroptera sensu latissimo (or Ephemera/fg1)


Nomen hierarchicum: Ephemera/fg1 [f:1810; g:1758] (incl. Triplosoba).

Nomina circumscribentia monosemantica:

Archipteradelphia Crampton 1924  

Panarchiptera Crampton 1924  

Panephemeroptera Crampton 1928: 85 

Ephemeropteria Crampton 1938: 170

Ephemeropteroidea Rohdendorf 1968: 61

Ephemeropteroida Müller 1978: 197

Nomina circumscribentia non-monosemantica (in circumscription fitting also Euephemeroptera and Euplectoptera):

Anisoptera Stephens 1835: 53 (sensu latissimo

Plectoptera Packard 1886: 808 (sensu latissimo

Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1891: 13 (sensu latissimo

Archipterygota Borner 1909: 121 (sensu latissimo)

Prometabola Heymons 1909: 150 (sensu latissimo)

Plectopteradelphia Crampton 1916: 305 (sensu latissimo)

In circumscription monosemantically fits:

ordo Ephemeroptera: Demoulin 1956b: 8

ordo Ephemerida: Rohdendorf 1977: 20

superordo Panephemeroptera Crampton 1928: 83

superordo Panephemeroptera = Ephemeropteria Crampton 1938: 170

superordo Ephemeroptera: Martynov 1938: 32

superordo Ephemeropteroidea Rohdendorf 1968: 61

superordo Ephemeridea: Rasnitsyn 2002: 86

cohors Ephemeriformes: Rohdendorf 1977: 20

sectio Ephemerata: Boudreaux 1979: 196

subclassis Ephemeroidea: Handlirsch 1906: 37

Panephemeroptera = Ephemera/fg1: Kluge 2000: 241

In circumscription non-monosemantically fits (fitting also Euephemeroptera and Euplectoptera):

gen. Ephemera Linnaeus 1758: 546 (sensu latissimo)

natio Ephemeraedes: Billberg 1820: 97 (sensu latissimo)

tribus Ephemerides: Leach 1815: 137 (sensu latissimo)

fam. Ephemerinae Latreille 1810: 273 (sensu latissimo)

fam. Ephemerina: Burmeister 1829: 20 (sensu latissimo)

fam. Ephemeridae: Stephens 1835: 54 (sensu latissimo)

sectio Anisoptera Stephens 1835: 53 (sensu latissimo)

subordo Ephemerina: Packard 1883: 192 (sensu latissimo)

ordo Ephemerida: Haeckel 1866 (sensu latissimo)

ordo Ephemeridae: Brauer 1885: 353 (sensu latissimo)

ordo Plectoptera Packard 1886: 808 (sensu latissimo)

ordo Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1891: 13 (sensu latissimo)

ordo Agnatha: auct. (non Agnathes Cuvier 1798) (sensu latissimo)

sectio Plectopteradelphia Crampton 1916: 305 (sensu latissimo)

supersectio Archipterygota Borner 1909: 121 (sensu latissimo)

cohors Prometabola Chen 1958 (sensu latissimo)

References. Martynov 1938: *; Tshernova 1962b: *; Kluge 2000: *; Rasnitsyn 2002: *; Kluge 2004: *.

Characters of Panephemeroptera of unclear phylogenetic status.

(1) Wings are unable to fold on back: in rest are directed dorsally (Kluge 2004: Fig.8:A) or spread laterally (Kluge 2004: Fig.14:A). The same in Odonatoptera Lameere 1900 (or Libellula/fg1) and Protorrhynchota Rohdendorf 1968 (or Dictyoneura/fg1), unlike Neoptera Martynov 1923.

(2) At least fore wing is costalized: veins Sc and RA go parallel to C nearly up to wing apex; RS begins as a common stem (Kluge 2004: Fig.7:C-D, 14:A-B). Non-unique character; the same in Protorrhynchota and many others.

(3) Convex and concave veins are regularly alternating (Kluge 2004: Fig.7:A-D, 14:A-B): there are concave RS, convex MA, concave MP, convex CuA, concave CuP and others (besides concave Sc and convex RA, which are common for Pterygota). The same in Protorrhynchota; Odonatoptera have less number of regularly alternating veins; Neoptera have different composition of veins behind RA. Among Panephemeroptera, these veins can be lost only on vestigial hind wings of some Euplectoptera.

(4) There is a triad branching of veins, which provides regular alternating of convex and concave branches (Kluge 2004: Fig.7:B-D, 14:A-B). RS [concave see (3)] forms a triad of concave RSa and RSp and convex iRS between them; RSa forms a triad of concave RSa1 and RSa2 and convex iRSa between them (the same in Odonatoptera, unlike Protorrhynchota). MP [concave - see (3)] forms a triad of concave MP1 and MP2 and convex iMP. Euplectoptera have also triads formed by RSa2 and MA (Kluge 2004: Fig.7:C, 14:B). Only in extremely specialized representatives of Euplectoptera some of these veins are lost.

Plesiomorphy of Panephemeroptera. Paracercus is present, often long and multisegmented (Kluge 2004: Fig.12:A-C, 12:D-G, 14), sometimes reduced to a non-segmented vestige; presence of paracercus is a unique plesiomorphy among Pterygota.

Size. Fore wing length 240 mm.

Age and distribution. Carboniferous (see Protephemeroidea) recent; world-wide.

The taxon Panephemeroptera, or Ephemeroptera s.l. (or Ephemera/fg1) is divided into:

1. Carboniferous taxon Protephemeroidea (or Triplosoba/fg1)

2. Permian-Recent taxon Euephemeroptera, or Ephemeroptera (or Ephemera/fg2)

2.1. Permian-Triassic plesiomorphon Permoplectoptera, (or Protereisma/f1=Phtharthus/g1)

2.2. Mesozoic-Recent taxon Euplectoptera (or Ephemera/fg3)