CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

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Euplectoptera, or Ephemeroptera sensu srticto (or Ephemera/fg3)

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera - Euplectoptera)

Nomen hierarchicum: Ephemera/fg3 [f:1810; g:1758] (sine Phtharthus; incl. Prosopistoma).

Nomina circumscribentia monosemantica: 

— Euplectoptera Tillyard 1932: 267 (non Euplectoptera Fischer 1853)

— Triangulifera Willmann 2006

Nomina circumscribentia non-monosemantica (in circumscription fitting also Panephemeroptera and Euephemeroptera):

— Anisoptera Stephens 1835: 53 (s.str.

— Plectoptera Packard 1886: 808 (s.str.

— Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1891: 13 (s.str.)

— Archipterygota Borner 1909: 121 (s.str.)

— Prometabola Heymons 1909: 150 (s.str.

— Plectopteradelphia Crampton 1916: 305 (s.str.

In circumscription exactly fits:

— subordo Euplectoptera Tillyard 1932: 267

— Euplectoptera = Ephemera/fg3: Kluge 2000: 245

In circumscription non-monosemantically fits (fitting also Panephemeroptera and Euephemeroptera):

— gen. Ephemera Linnaeus 1758: 546 (s.str.)

— natio Ephemeraedes: Billberg 1820: 97 (s.str.)

— tribus Ephemerides: Leach 1815: 137 (s.str.)

— fam. Ephemerinae Latreille 1810: 273 (s.str.)

— fam. Ephemerina: Burmeister 1829: 20 (s.str.)

— fam. Ephemeridae: Stephens 1835: 54 (s.str.)

— sectio Anisoptera Stephens 1835: 53 (s.str.)

— subordo Ephemerina: Packard 1883: 192 (s.str.)

— ordo Ephemerida: Haeckel 1866 (s.str.)

— ordo Ephemeridae: Brauer 1885: 353 (s.str.)

— ordo Plectoptera Packard 1886: 808 (s.str.)

— ordo Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1891: 13 (s.str.)

— ordo Agnatha: auct. (non Agnathes Cuvier 1798) (s.str.)

— sectio Plectopteradelphia Crampton 1916: 305 (s.str.)

— supersectio Archipterygota Borner 1909: 121 (s.str.)

— cohors Prometabola Chen 1958 (s.str.)


References. Tillyard 1932: *; – Tshernova 1962b: *; – Kluge 2000: *; – 2004: *.


Characters of Euplectoptera of unclear phylogenetic status.

(1) Anteromotoric: hind wings are diminished, coupled with fore ones and modified in following manner: hind wing veins RA, RS and MA have a common stem [instead of the stem RS+MA separated from RA on fore wing – see Euephemeroptera (2)]; RS forms a single triad [instead of three successive triads of fore wing – see Euephemeroptera (3)], thus hind wing has maximum three simple triads alternating as concave and convex – RS, MA and MP (Kluge 2004: Fig.7:D). Hind wing length is subequal or less than a half of fore wing length. At flight hind and fore wings of each side couple because costal margin of hind wing is bent dorsally and basitornal margin of fore wing is bent ventrally. Thus, a functional diptery is present. In connection with this, fore wing is triangular, with tornus expressed (the same independently appeared in other anteromotoric Pterygota). As tornus of fore wing has different position in different Euplectoptera [see Posteritorna (1) and Anteritorna (1) below], its independent origin can be assumed, as well as independent shortening of hind wing. In various taxa among Euplectoptera hind wings undergone further reduction up to complete disappearance (see Index of characters [2.2.59]).

(2) Tergalii [see Euephemeroptera (4)] of abdominal segments VIII–IX are lost, thus tergalii are present only on segments I–VII or only on some of them. Pattern of this character is not quite clear, as larvae of many Permoplectoptera are unknown.

Size. Fore wing length 2–40 mm.

Age and distribution. Jurassic (see Eusetisura INCERTAE SEDIS, Fossoriae INC.SED. and Anteritorna INC.SED.) – recent; world-wide. Some Triassic fossils were attributed to Euplectopteran genera Mesoneta, Mesobaetis and Archaeobehningia without enough ground (see below, "Other species of Euephemeroptera INCERTAE SEDIS" and "Euarthropoda INCERTAE SEDIS"). Reliable fossils of Triassic Euplectoptera are unknown.


The taxon Euplectoptera (or Ephemera/fg3) is divided into:

1. Posteritorna (or Baetisca/f1=Prosopistoma/g1)

2. Anteritorna (or Ephemera/fg4)

Some fossil mayflies have uncertain systematic position — see Euplectoptera INCERTAE SEDIS