CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA
Cryptoprosternata (or Palingenia/f1=Ephoron/g1)
Fimbriatotergaliae Fossoriae - Cryptoprosternata)
Nomen hierarchicum: Palingenia/f1=Ephoron/g1 [f:1888; g:1802]
Nomen circumscribens: Cryptoprosternata Kluge 2000: 252
In circumscription fits:
— gen. Palingenia Burmeister 1839: 802
— subfam. Palingenines: Selys-Longchamps 1888: 147
— Cryptoprosternata = Palingenia/f1=Ephoron/g1: Kluge 2000: 252
References. Kluge 2004: * * *
Autapomorphies of Cryptoprosternata. Autapomorphies (1)–(3) are connected with deepening of the burrowing specialization of mandibles and fore legs in larva [see Fossoriae (1)].
(1) Larval, subimaginal and imaginal prosternum is narrowed, bases of fore coxae are brought together; larval fore coxae are contiguous or nearly contiguous at one point where they are articulated with the prosternum; a part of the prosternum behind coxae bases is dipped into the body, thus furca represents a fork-like hollow formation, opened outside by a small unpaired opening exactly behind the place of connection of leg coxae (Kluge 2004: Fig.74:C, 77:B–C). At the same time, furcae of mesothorax and metathorax are not modified (i.e. each consists of a pair of widely separated apodemes). In other Ephemeroptera median coxal condyli are widely separated (Kluge 2004: Fig.70:B); among the species examined, Hexagenia/fg3 limbata [Ephemera] has the narrowest unpaired prosternal furca, but its coxae are not brought together (Kluge 2004: Fig.70:A).
(2) In larva on fore leg [specialized as burrowing – see Fossoriae (1)] inner side of femur is proximally convex; distal edge of trochanter, which bears a condylus, wedges itself into anterior side of the femur (Kluge 2004: Fig.74:C–D, 77:B–C). In other mayflies, including those which have specialized burrowing fore legs (Ephemera/fg9 and Ichthybotus), inner side of fore femur is straight, and trochanter is longest not on anterior, but on its inner side.
(3) Larval mandibles and fore legs have following regularly situated long setae. (A) Ventral side of mandible with an arched row of setae, this row is directed by its convex side laterally-dorsally; in Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 this is a U-shape row (Kluge 2004: Fig.76:B, 79:C–D), in Palingenia/f2=g1 this is a widely-arched stripe of irregularly situated setae (Kluge 2004: Fig.75:C). (B) The proximal convexity of inner side of fore femur [see (2)] with a U-shape row of setae: curvation of this row is situated at extreme femur base, and two its arms are directed distally; in Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 this row is regular (Kluge 2004: Fig.77:C), and in Palingenia/f2=g1 it has a form of stripe (Kluge 2004: Fig.74:D). (C) Anterior (dorsal) side of fore tibia has at least a proximal oblique row of setae; in Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 this row is regular, both its ends are sharply curved distally and continued as two regular longitudinal rows (Kluge 2004: Fig.77:C); in Palingenia/f2=g1 this row is double and has no continuations (Kluge 2004: Fig.74:D). (D) Inner side of fore tibia has a regular row of setae, whose shape is different in Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 and Palingenia/f2=g1. At least presence of the rows (B) and (C) is a unique apomorphy.
(4) Maxillary and labial palps are 2-segmented; palps of both pairs have 1st segment shortened, and 2nd+3rd segment thickened, of a simple shape – oval, oval-conic, banana-shaped, etc. (Kluge 2004: Fig.75:C, 76:B). Correspondingly, labial palp has no muscle in 2nd segment (as well as maxillary palp – see Morphology).
Unlike Cryptoprosternata, in various other Fimbriatotergaliae — in Ephemera/fg9, Ichthybotus, Potamanthus/fg1 and Euthyplocia/fg1 – maxillary palp is long and slender, and labial palp often has widened 3rd segment; if 2nd and 3rd segments of labial palp are fused, they retain general composite shape and sometimes muscle of 2nd segment (see Index of characters [1.1.55] and [1.1.58]).
(5) Imaginal and subimaginal paracercus is reduced at least in male; in Pentagenia and Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3 paracercus is well-developed in female, while in Palingenia/f3=g2 and Campsurus/fg1 it is reduced in both sexes. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [2.3.22]).
Character of Cryptoprosternata of unclear phylogenetic status.
(6) Tergalius I [see Fimbriatotergaliae (6)] is vestigial, without processes, initially bilamellate (in Anagenesia/g1, Polymitarcys/f2=Ephoron/g3 and Tortopus – unilamellate). The same in majority of Fossoriae (except for Behningia/fg1) and in Euthyplocia/fg1; probably, symplesiomorphy.
Size. Fore wing length 5–30 mm.
Distribution. Holarctic, Oriental, Afrotropical and Neotropical Regions.
|The taxon Cryptoprosternata (or Palingenia/f1=Ephoron/g1) is divided into:|
1.1. plesiomorphon Pentagenia