CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

z 

Campsurus/fg2

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Fimbriatotergaliae Fossoriae Cryptoprosternata Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2  
Campsurus/fg1 - Campsurus/fg2)

Nomen hierarchicum: Campsurus/fg2 [f:1935; g:1868] (sine Asthenopus; incl. Tortopus)

In circumscription fits:

 subfam. Campsurinae: Edmunds & Traver 1954a: 239

 Campsurus/fg2: Kluge 2004: 267


References. Needham & Traver & Hsu 1935: * *; Edmunds & Allen & Peters 1963: *; Koss & Edmunds 1974: *; Edmunds & Jensen & Berner 1976: * *; Kluge 2004: * * * *


Autapomorphies of Campsurus/fg2.

(1) On fore wing vein CuA [proximally arched by its convexity posteriorly see Fimbriatotergaliae (5)] distally is strongly arched by its convexity anteriorly, thus terminating close to tornus, and two intercalaries of cubital field [see Campsurus/fg1 (5)] are turned in such a manner, that arise from CuA and go posteriorly: the anteriormost of them terminates close to tornus, and the posteriormost behind it on basitornal margin (Kluge 2004: Fig.80:A). Unique apomorphy.

(2) Genitals have unique structure (Kluge 2004: Fig.80:CD). Median part of styliger is completely lost, thus gonostyli pedestals [initially well-separated see Polymitarcys/f1=Ephoron/g2 (7)] are movably articulated to membrane, which connects posterior margin of sternite IX with base of penis. Penial arms lost articulations with tergite IX; each penial arm is laterally articulated with posterior-lateral angle of sternite IX and ventrally with base of gonostylus pedestal; muscles going from penial arms to sternite IX, are enlarged. Muscles of gonostyli (initially located inide gonostyli pedestals) are lost. Thus gonostyli [non-segmented see Campsurus/fg1 (10)] are either immobile fused with gonostyli pedestals, or have only passive mobility, while gonostyli pedestals have active mobility served by the muscles going from penial arms to sternite IX.

(3) Egg is hemispherical, with one side convex and another flattened or concave. In other respects eggs are variable: either without polar structures (in Tortopus and some Campsurus/fg3), or with long threads on one pole, which being coiled to a large spiral, form a cap with smooth external surface (in some Campsurus/fg3).

Plesiomorphies of Campsurus/fg2. Mandibular tusks have no that specialization, which is peculiar for Asthenopus/fg1. Unlike Asthenopus/fg1, all larval claws without denticles.

Size. Fore wing length 520 mm.

Distribution. America; dominate in Neotropical Region.


The taxon Campsurus/fg2 is divided into:

1. Campsurus/fg3

2. Tortopus/g1

2.1. Tortopus/g2

2.2. Tortopsis