CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

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Drunella/g1

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Ephemerella/fg1
Tricorythus/fg1Ephemerella/fg2Timpanoga/fg1Ephemerella/fg3Torleya/g1Ephemerella/fg4 - Drunella)

Nomen hierarchicum: Drunella/g1 [g:1905]

In circumscription fits:

subgen. Drunella: McDunnough 1931b: 210

gen. Drunella: Allen 1980: 79

Drunella/g1: Kluge 2004: 304

Nominal taxa included:

Eatonella/g [g:1927]

Myllonella/g [g:1980]

Tribrochella/g [g:1980]

Unirachella/g [g:1980]


References. Edmunds 1959: * *; Allen & Edmunds 1962a: * *; Edmunds & Jensen & Berner 1976: * *; Kluge 2004: * * * *


Autapomorphies of Drunella.

(1) Larva is carnivorous, fore legs are specialized as grasping: fore femur is usually thickened, usually widest in its proximal half; transverse row of setae [see Ephemerella/fg1 (12)] is always absent; inner (directed anteriorly) margin of fore femur is usually serrate, that allows to keep a prey, clutching it between the femur and tibia; fore tibia on its apex on inner side has a projection directed distally, along inner side of tarsus (Kluge 1997d: Fig.18.418.8). In selected representatives of Drunella/fg1 some of these characters are not expressed or weakly expressed: fore femur can be nearly parallel-sided, and its denticles can be the same as on middle and hind femora or absent. Among the characters named here, the most constant is the projection on tibia. Besides Drunella/g1, similar specialization of fore femur (but not tibia) independently appeared in Tricorythus/fg1-Vietnamella.

(2) Larval clypeus is crossed transversely by a distinct stripe of hairs projected forward (Allen 1973: Fig.8). Unique apomorphy: some other Ephemerella/fg1 have similar transverse row of setae on frons, but not on clypeus.

Plesiomorphies of Drunella. Maxilla is biting [see Ephemerella/fg1 (16)], vestige of maxillary palp is always present, 3-segmented [see Ephemerella/fg1 (1)]. Larval thorax without projections characteristic for Cincticostella/g1 or Notacanthella. Larval paracercus has the same length as cerci (unlike Caudatella).

Size. Fore wing length 619 mm.

Distribution. Amphipacific: Nearctic and Eastern Palaearctic; the most western representatives inhabit Tien-Shan-Himalayan Region (all former reports of Drunella from more western areas appeared to be wrong).


Nominal species in Drunella/g1:  

aculea Allen 1971 [Ephemerella (Drunella)] --/

 allegheniensis Traver 1934 [Ephemerella]

 autumnalis McDunnough 1934 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. spinifera [Ephemerella]

basalis Imanishi 1937 [Ephemerella]

bicornis Gose 1980 [Ephemerella (Drunella)] syn.subj. lepnevae [Ephemerella]

bifurcata Allen 1971 [Ephemerella (Drunella)] syn.subj. sachalinensis [Ephemerella]

 bispina Needham 1905 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. walkeri [Ephemerella]

borakensis Allen 1971 [Ephemerella (Drunella)] syn.subj. submontana [Ephemerella]

 carsona Day 1952 [Ephemerella glacialis]  

 cherokee Traver 1937 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. tuberculata [Ephemerella]

 coloradensis Dodds 1923 [Ephemerella] typus nominis Myllonella ,-

 conestee Traver 1932 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. tuberculata [Ephemerella]

 cornuta Morgan 1911 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. lata [Ephemerella]

 cornutella McDunnough 1931 [Ephemerella]

 depressa Ide 1930 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. lata [Ephemerella]

doddsi Needham 1927 [Ephemerella (Eatonella)] typus nominis Eatonella ,

ezoensis Gose 1980 [Ephemerella (Drunella) trispina] nom.praeocc. syn.subj. triacantha [Ephemerella]

 flavilinea McDunnough 1926 [Ephemerella]

 flavitincta McDunnough 1934 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. grandis [Ephemerella]

 fuscata Walker 1853 [Baetis] nom. praeocc. syn.obj. walkeri [Ephemerella]

fuso Jacobus & McCafferty 2008 [Drunella] syn.obj. fusongensis [Drunella]

fusongensis Su & Gui 1995 [Drunella] syn.subj. lepnevae [Ephemerella]

 glacialis Traver 1934 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. grandis [Ephemerella

 grandis Eaton 1884 [Ephemerella] typus nominis Drunella ,

 inflata McDunnough 1926 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. lata [Ephemerella]

 ingens McDunnough 1934 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. grandis [Ephemerella]

kabulensis Allen 1973 [Ephemerella (Drunella)] syn.subj. submontana [Ephemerella]

kohnoi Allen 1971 [Ephemerella (Drunella)]

 lapidula McDunnough 1935 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. flavilinea [Ephemerella]

 lata Morgan 1911 [Ephemerella]

latipes Tshernova 1952 [Ephemerella] --/

lepnevae Tshernova 1949 [Ephemerella] --/

 longicornis Traver 1932 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. lata [Ephemerella]

longipes Tshernova 1952 [Ephemerella]   syn.subj. lepnevae [Ephemerella]

nasiri Ali 1971 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. submontana [Ephemerella]

 pelosa Mayo 1951 [Ephemerella]

 proserpina Traver 1934 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. grandis [Ephemerella]

sachalinensis Matsumura 1931 [Ephemerella]

 sierra Mayo 1952 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. spinifera [Ephemerella]

solida Bajkova 1980 [Ephemerella] --/

 spinifera Needham 1927 [Ephemerella (Drunella)]

submontana Brodsky 1930 [Ephemerella] --/

svenhedini Ulmer 1936 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. submontana [Ephemerella]

tenax Tshernova 1952 [Ephemerella]   syn.subj. triacantha [Ephemerella]

traverae Allen & Edmunds 1963 [Ephemerella (Drunella)] syn.subj. submontana [Ephemerella]

triacantha Tshernova 1949 [Ephemerella] --/

trispina Ueno 1928 [Ephemerella]   typus nominis Tribrochella

 tuberculata Morgan 1911 [Ephemerella]   typus nominis Unirachella

 walkeri Eaton 1884 [Ephemerella]

 wayah Traver 1932 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. walkeri [Ephemerella]

 wilsoni Mayo 1952 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. coloradensis [Ephemerella]

 yosemite Traver 1934 [Ephemerella] syn.subj. grandis [Ephemerella]

yoshinoensis Gose 1963 [Ephemerella]


See also: 

Ephemerella/fg3 INCERTAE SEDIS 

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