CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

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Thraulodes

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Leptophlebia/fg1 Atalophleboadentata Atalophlebopectinata Atalophleboculata Atalophlebomaxillata Atalophlebolinguata 
... Hagenulus/fg1 Hermanellandria - Thraulodes)

Nomen hierarchicum: Thraulodes/g(1) [g:1920]

In circumscription fits:

 gen. Thraulodes Ulmer 1920: 33


References. Traver & Edmunds 1967: * * *.


Autapomorphies of Thraulodes.

(1) Bases of gonostyli are brought together in a common unpaired gonostylar cavity of styliger; dorsal margin of styliger is projected caudally, and the gonostylar cavity is exposed ventrally-caudally.

(2) Telopenis [see Hermanellandria (1)] is tubular with a longitudinal cleft up to its base, i.e. represents a roll (in contrast to integral tube of Hermanellognatha and Simothraulopsis and non-tubular process of Farrodes).

(3) On hind tibia, stout setae of outer margin [see Leptophlebia/fg1 (8)] form two separated rows, outer-anterior and outer-posterior ones; long hairs (also initial for Leptophlebia/fg1) are situated between these two rows of stout setae and form one more row posteriad of them; row of recurved hairs is located on anterior side of tibia, more distally from inner margin than the inner-anterior row of stout setae, which is present on middle and hind legs (Fig. ).

Characters of Thraulodes of unclear phylogenetic status. 

(4) Outer side of each mandible with distal setal bunch, but without middle setal bunch: long hairs forming row of field on outer margin of mandible, are denser and longer nearer the base of incisor (the same in some other taxa).

(5) Long setae of dorsal side of glossa form irregular row or stripe of a characteristic horseshoe shape (the same in Atopophlebia).

(6) Larva (whose body is flattened and widened, being adopted for inhabitancy under stones on current, as in many other Atalophlebolinguata) has unusual mode of swimming: it keeps legs laterally semi-bent in knees (as if sitting on substrate) and makes lateral swimming movements by abdomen (unlike most other Ephemeroptera, which make dorso-ventral swimming movements). The same in Kimminsula (see Index of characters [1b]).

Plesiomorphies of Thraulodes.

(7) Hind wing always retains furcations of RS and MP [furcation of MA is lost see Furcatergaliae (4)].

Size. Fore wing length 515 mm.

Distribution. Neotropical Region and south of Nearctic Region.


Nominal species in Thraulodes/g(1):

alapictus Lima & Mariano & Pinheiro 2013 [Thraulodes]

amanda Mariano & Froehlich (in Mariano & Flowers & Froehlich) 2011 [Thraulodes]

arizonicus McDunnough 1942 [Thraulodes]  syn.subj. speciosus [Thraulodes

basimaculatus Giordano & Dominguez 2005 [Thraulodes]

bolivianus Dominguez 1986 [Thraulodes]  

bomplandi Esben-Petersen 1912 [Thraulus]  

bonito Goncalves & Da-Silva & Nessimian 2013 [Thraulodes]

borum [Thraulodes] nomen nudum

brunneus Koss 1966 [Thraulodes]  

centralis Traver 1946 [Thraulodes]  

cochunaensis Dominguez 1987 [Thraulodes]  

consortis Dominguez 1987 [Thraulodes] ,

cryptodrilus Neito & Dominguez 2001 [Thraulodes]   syn.subj. lepidus [Thraulus]

daidaleus Thew 1960 [Thraulodes]  

eduardorum Medina & Perez 2010 [Thraulodes]  

eccentricus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 1996 [Thraulodes]

ephippiatus Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

flinti Dominguez 1987 [Thraulodes]  

furficulus Traver 1946 [Thraulodes]  

gonzalesi Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

grandis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 1996 [Thraulodes]  

guanare Chacon & Segnini & Dominguez 1999 [Thraulodes]  

quevedoensis Flowers 2009 [Thraulodes]

hilaris Eaton 1892 [Thraulus]  

hilaroides Traver 1946 [Thraulodes]  

humeralis Navas 1935 [Thraulodes]  

insular Domínguez & Molineri & Zúñiga (in Zúñiga & Molineri & Domínguez & Cardona) 2015 [Thraulodes]

irretitus Navas 1924 [Thraulodes]  

itatiajanus Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

jones Gonçalves & Da-Silva & Nessimian 2010 [Thraulodes]  

laetus Eaton 1884 [Thraulus] typus nominis Thraulodes  

lepidus Eaton 1884 [Thraulus]  /

limbatus Navas 1936 [Thraulodes]  

liminaris Dominguez 1987 [Thraulodes]  

luisae Souto & Da-Silva & Nessimian 2014 [Thraulodes]

luizgonzagai Lima & Mariano & Pinheiro 2013 [Thraulodes]

lunatus Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

marreroi Chacon & Segnini & Dominguez 1999 [Thraulodes]  

mexicanus Eaton 1884 [Thaulus]  

mucuy Chacon & Segnini & Dominguez 1999 [Thraulodes]  

nervosa Eaton 1892 [Choroterpes] ?

osiris Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

pacaya McCafferty & Baumbgardner & Guenther 2004 [Thraulodes]  

packeri Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

papilionis Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

paysandensis Traver 1964 [Thraulodes]  

pedregoso Traver 1946 [Thraulodes]  syn.subj. lepidus [Thraulus]

pelicanus Mariano & Froehlich (in Mariano & Flowers & Froehlich) 2011 [Thraulodes]

pinga Souto & Da-Silva & Nessimian 2014 [Thraulodes]

pinhoi Lima & Mariano & Pinheiro 2013 [Thraulodes]

plicatus Needham & Murphy 1924 [Thraulodes]  syn.subj. telegraphicus [Thraulodes]

prolongatus Traver 1946 [Thraulodes]  

regulus Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

rodrigoi Boldrini & Dantas & Lima 2018 [Thraulodes]

salinus Kilgore & Allen 1973 [Thraulodes]  syn.subj. gonzalezi [Thraulodes]

schlingeri Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]   --/

sinuosus Mariano & Flowers (in Mariano & Flowers & Froehlich) 2011 [Thraulodes] --

spangleri Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

speciosus Traver 1934 [Thraulodes]  

sternimaculatus Lima & Mariano & Pinheiro 2013 [Thraulodes]

telegraphicus Needham & Murphy 1924 [Thraulodes]  

tenulineus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 1996 [Thraulodes]  

traverae Thew 1960 [Thraulodes]  

trijuncta Banks 1918 [Thraulus]  

ulmeri Edmunds 1950 [Thraulodes]  

valens Eaton 1892 [Thraulus]  

venezuelana Ulmer 1943 [Thraulodes]  

xavantinensis Mariano & Froehlich (in Mariano & Flowers & Froehlich) 2011 [Thraulodes]

zonalis Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  


Examined:

spp. (Panama) --/

spp. (Peru) --/

 

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