CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

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Thraulodes

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Leptophlebia/fg1 Atalophleboadentata Atalophlebopectinata Atalophleboculata Atalophlebomaxillata Atalophlebolinguata 
... Hagenulus/fg1 - Thraulodes)

Nomen hierarchicum: Thraulodes/g(1) [g:1920]

In circumscription fits:

 gen. Thraulodes Ulmer 1920: 33


References. Traver & Edmunds 1967: * * *.


Autapomorphies of Thraulodes.

() Male imaginal genitals have unique features: apical-dorsal plate of styliger is produced to an unpaired median projection (pointed or rounded); each gonostylus has proximal (1st+2nd) segment strongly arched or angulate, usually each distal segment (3rd and 4th) is narrow basally and widened apically; each penis lobe bears a long slender straight pointed spine-like sclerotized process arising dorsally from distal margin and usually directed medially-caudally (Traver & Edmunds 1967: Fig.3059).

() Larva (whose body is flattened and widened, being adopted for inhabitancy under stones on current, as in many other Atalophlebolinguata) has unusual mode of swimming: it keeps legs laterally semi-bent in knees (as if sitting on substrate) and makes lateral swimming movements by abdomen (unlike most other Ephemeroptera, which make dorso-ventral swimming movements). The same in Kimminsula (see Index of characters [1b])

() Labrum is widened, ...? with angulate lateral margins, without median incision and its denticles [see Atalophleboculata (2)].

(?) Mandible with moderately long setae in distal half of outer margin (similarly with to Ulmeritus/g1), without long setae in middle of outer margin (unlike Ulmeritus/g1 and ...).

Characters of Thraulodes of unclear phylogenetic status. 

...

Plesiomorphies of Thraulodes.

Size. Fore wing length 515 mm.

Distribution. Neotropical Region and south of Nearctic Region.


Nominal species in Thraulodes/g(1):

alapictus Lima & Mariano & Pinheiro 2013 [Thraulodes]

amanda Mariano & Froehlich (in Mariano & Flowers & Froehlich) 2011 [Thraulodes]

arizonicus McDunnough 1942 [Thraulodes]  syn.subj. speciosus [Thraulodes

basimaculatus Giordano & Dominguez 2005 [Thraulodes]

bolivianus Dominguez 1986 [Thraulodes]  

bomplandi Esben-Petersen 1912 [Thraulus]  

bonito Goncalves & Da-Silva & Nessimian 2013 [Thraulodes]

borum [Thraulodes] nomen nudum

brunneus Koss 1966 [Thraulodes]  

centralis Traver 1946 [Thraulodes]  

cochunaensis Dominguez 1987 [Thraulodes]  

colombiae Walker 1853 [Ephemera]  

consortis Dominguez 1987 [Thraulodes] ,

cryptodrilus Neito & Dominguez 2001 [Thraulodes]   syn.subj. lepidus [Thraulus]

daidaleus Thew 1960 [Thraulodes]  

eduardorum Medina & Perez 2010 [Thraulodes]  

eccentricus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 1996 [Thraulodes]

ephippiatus Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

flinti Dominguez 1987 [Thraulodes]  

furficulus Traver 1946 [Thraulodes]  

gonzalesi Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

grandis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 1996 [Thraulodes]  

guanare Chacon & Segnini & Dominguez 1999 [Thraulodes]  

quevedoensis Flowers 2009 [Thraulodes]

hilaris Eaton 1892 [Thraulus]  

hilaroides Traver 1946 [Thraulodes]  

humeralis Navas 1935 [Thraulodes]  

insular Domínguez & Molineri & Zúñiga (in Zúñiga & Molineri & Domínguez & Cardona) 2015 [Thraulodes]

irretitus Navas 1924 [Thraulodes]  

itatiajanus Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

jones Gonçalves & Da-Silva & Nessimian 2010 [Thraulodes]  

laetus Eaton 1884 [Thraulus] typus nominis Thraulodes  

lepidus Eaton 1884 [Thraulus]  

limbatus Navas 1936 [Thraulodes]  

liminaris Dominguez 1987 [Thraulodes]  

luisae Souto & Da-Silva & Nessimian 2014 [Thraulodes]

luizgonzagai Lima & Mariano & Pinheiro 2013 [Thraulodes]

lunatus Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

marreroi Chacon & Segnini & Dominguez 1999 [Thraulodes]  

mexicanus Eaton 1884 [Thaulus]  

mucuy Chacon & Segnini & Dominguez 1999 [Thraulodes]  

nervosa Eaton 1892 [Choroterpes] ?

osiris Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

pacaya McCafferty & Baumbgardner & Guenther 2004 [Thraulodes]  

packeri Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

papilionis Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

paysandensis Traver 1964 [Thraulodes]  

pedregoso Traver 1946 [Thraulodes]  syn.subj. lepidus [Thraulus]

pelicanus Mariano & Froehlich (in Mariano & Flowers & Froehlich) [Thraulodes]

pinga Souto & Da-Silva & Nessimian 2014 [Thraulodes]

pinhoi Lima & Mariano & Pinheiro 2013 [Thraulodes]

plicatus Needham & Murphy 1924 [Thraulodes]  syn.subj. telegraphicus [Thraulodes]

prolongatus Traver 1946 [Thraulodes]  

regulus Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

salinus Kilgore & Allen 1973 [Thraulodes]  syn.subj. gonzalezi [Thraulodes]

schlingeri Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

sinuosus Mariano & Flowers (in Mariano & Flowers & Froehlich) 2011 [Thraulodes]

spangleri Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  

speciosus Traver 1934 [Thraulodes]  

sternimaculatus Lima & Mariano & Pinheiro 2013 [Thraulodes]

subfasciata Navas 1934 [Thraulodes]  

telegraphicus Needham & Murphy 1924 [Thraulodes]  

tenulineus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 1996 [Thraulodes]  

traverae Thew 1960 [Thraulodes]  

trijuncta Banks 1918 [Thraulus]  

ulmeri Edmunds 1950 [Thraulodes]  

valens Eaton 1892 [Thraulus]  

venezuelana Ulmer 1943 [Thraulodes]  

vitripennis Blanchard 1851 [Ephemera (Cloe)]  ?

xavantinensis Mariano & Froehlich (in Mariano & Flowers & Froehlich) 2011 [Thraulodes]

zonalis Traver & Edmunds 1967 [Thraulodes]  


Examined:

sp. (Panama)

spp. (Peru) --/

 

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