CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

z 

Palingenia/f4=g3

(PPanephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Fimbriatotergaliae Fossoriae Cryptoprosternata Palingenia/f2=g1
PentageniaPalingenia/f3=g2 - Palingenia/f4=g3)

Nomen hierarchicum: Palingenia/f4=g3 [f:1888; g:1839] (sine Anagenesia)

In circumscription fits:

subgen. Palingenia: Eaton 1883: 23

gen. Palingenia: Lestage 1917: 254

Palingenia/f4=g3: Kluge 2004: 253


References. Eaton 18831885: ; Demoulin 1965b: ; Soldan 1978b: ; Kluge 2004: * * * *


Characters of Palingenia/f4=g3 of unclear phylogenetic status (Table).

(1) Denticles on outer margin of mandibular tusk [see Palingenia/f2=g1 (2)] are large and integral, without terminal spine-like setae (Kluge 2004: Fig.76:E). The same in Mortogenesia and Plethogenesia.

(2) In larva on outer margin of fore tibia spine-like setae [see Palingenia/f2=g1 (5)] are lost and substituted by large denticles. The same in Mortogenesia.

Plesiomorphies of Palingenia/f4=g3. Vestige of tergalius I [see Cryptoprosternata (6)] is bilamellate (Soldan 1978b: Fig.2022) (unlike Anagenesia/g1).

In imago and subimago: On fore wing bifurcation of MA is situated near middle; RSa2' and iRSa2 are present; many additional intercalary veins are present between paired veins RSa2+iRS, RSp+MA1 and iMA+MA2 [see Palingenia/f3=g2 (2)] and other longitudinal and intercalary veins, tornoapical wing margin has no incisions (unlike Anagenesia/g1); CuA without furcation (unlike some Anagenesia/g1 see Table) [see Anteritorna (1)]; MP1 and iMP are not brought together (unlike Cheirogenesia) (Eaton 18831888: Pl.1; Demoulin 1965b: Fig.12; Soldan 1978b: Fig.12). On fore leg of male tarsus is not shortened [unlike subimago see Palingenia/f3=g2 (3)]. In female tarsi of all legs are segmented; on middle and hind legs of male and female claws are ephemeropteroid (unlike Anagenesia/g1); male subimago moults to imago on bank attaching itself to some support by middle and hind legs (Landolt & al. 1995) [females do not moult see Palingenia/f3=g2 (1)].

Size. Fore wing length 2325 mm.

Distribution. West Palaearctic (including West Siberia) and northern Africa (to the south up to Liberia).


Nominal species in Palingenia/f4=g3: 

anatolica Jacob 1977 [Palingenia]

apatris Demoulin 1965 [Palingenia]

flosaquae Illiger 1802 [Ephemera] syn.subj. longicauda [Ephemera]

fuliginosa Georgi 1802 [Ephemera] ;

jordanica Bodenheimer [Palingenia] nomen nudum

longicauda Olivier 1791 [Ephemera] typus nominis Palingenia ;;

marginata Panzer 1804 [Semblis] syn.subj. longicauda [Ephemera]

orientalis Chopra 1927 [Palingenia]

sublongicauda Tshernova 1949 [Palingenia] ;

swammerdamiana Shaw 1806 [Ephemera] syn.subj. longicauda [Ephemera]

swammerdiana Latreille 1805 [Ephemera] syn.subj. longicauda [Ephemera]

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