CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

z 

Anagenesia/g1

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Fimbriatotergaliae Fossoriae Cryptoprosternata Palingenia/f2=g1
PentageniaPalingenia/f3=g2 - Anagenesia/g1)

Nomen hierarchicum: Anagenesia/g1 [g:1883] (incl. Mortogenesia, Chankagenesia, Plethogenesia, Cheirogenesia)

In circumscription fits:

 subgen. Anagenesia Eaton 18831888: 25

 gen. Anagenesia: Lestage 1917: 256

 Anagenesia/g1: Kluge 2004: 254


References. Eaton 18831888: *; Kluge 2004: * * * *


Autapomorphies of Anagenesia/g1.

(1) Fore wing is modified in following manner: RSa2 [approximated to iRS see Palingenia/f3=g2 (2)] does not form a triad (non-unique apomorphy see Index of characters [2.2.37]); bifurcation of MA is transferred to proximal part of wing (non-unique apomorphy see Index of characters [2.2.43]); additional intercalaries are absent or weekly developed, thus anterior-distal part of wing is armed only by paired veins RSa2+iRS, RSp+MA1 and iMA+MA2 [see Palingenia/f3=g2 (2)], wing margin between their apices can be incised (Kluge 2004: Fig.75:A; Demoulin 1965b: Fig.38). This form of wing has convergent similarity with Behningia/fg3. Some representatives of Anagenesia/g1 retain ability to fly, while some of them (Chankagenesia, Cheirogenesia, partly Anagenesia/g2) are unable to fly and can only skim the water surface (Buldovsky 1935a, 1935b; Tshernova 1952; Sartori & Elouard 1999).

(2) In male and female imago, legs [non-functional see Palingenia/f3=g2 (1)] are strongly modified. In male imago fore leg (elongate in majority of mayflies) retains subimaginal structure [see Palingenia/f3=g2 (3)]: it is short, with tarsus strongly shortened, thickened, usually arched (Demoulin 1965b: Fig.38). In both sexes on middle and hind legs all claws are blunt; in male posterior claw (i.e. the claw corresponding to pointed claw when claw structure is ephemeropteroid) can be more or less reduced (Table) [claws of fore leg are also blunt see Palingenia/f2=g1 (7) and Palingenia/f3=g2 (4)]. Female legs are reduced in greater degree; not only fore tarsus [see Palingenia/f3=g2 (4)], but all tarsi are non-segmented, each with 1 blunt claw only. Male subimago [skimming the water surface see (1)] can moult to imago on the water surface immediately after moult from larva to subimago, some specimens do not moult at all [females never moult see Palingenia/f3=g2 (1)] (Buldovsky 1935a, 1935b). Some of these features independently appeared in some other short-living mayflies.

(3) Vestige of tergalius I [initially bilamellate see Cryptoprosternata (6)] is unilamellate. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.3.33]).

Size. Fore wing length 1130 mm.

Distribution. Asia, New Guinea, Madagascar.


The taxon Anagenesia/g1 is divided into:

1. Mortogenesia

2. Chankagenesia

3. Anagenesia/g2

4. Plethogenesia 

5. Cheirogenesia

    

These taxa differ one from another by combinations of non-unique characters:

 

Taxa

Geographical distribution

Species number

Characters

Imaginal

Larval

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Palingenia/f4=g3

West Palaearctic

6

I

I  I

0 )

46

Δ

Δ

2

Anagenesia/g1:

                 

Mortogenesia

Iraq

1

I

I  I

00

46

Δ

Δ

1

Chankagenesia

Eastern Asia

1

I

I  I

0

2

I

I

1

Anagenesia/g2

Asia

14

Y

I  I

0

24

I

I

1

Plethogenesia

New Guinea

4

Y

I  I

00

2

Δ

I

1

Cheirogenesia

Madagascar

1

Y

II

00

2

I

I

1

1 vein CuA of fore wing: "I" simple, "Y" with bifurcation

2 veins MP1 and iMP of fore wing: "II" brought together, "I  I" not brought together

3 claws of middle and hind legs of male imago: "0 )" two ephemeropteroid, "00" two blunt, "0" single blunt

4 number of segments of gonostylus

5 tusk denticles: " I " denticle with articulated apical spine-like seta; "Δ" integral denticle

6 outer margin of fore tibia of larva: " I " with spine-like setae; "Δ" with denticles

7 number of lamellae of first tergalius