(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Fimbriatotergaliae Fossoriae
Cryptoprosternata - Palingenia/f2=g1)

Nomen hierarchicum: Palingenia/f2=g1 [f:1888; g:1839] (sine Ephoron; incl. Pentagenia

In circumscription fits:

— fam. Palingeniidae: McCafferty & Edmunds 1976a: 488

— Palingenia/f2=g1: Kluge 2000: 252

References. McCafferty & Edmunds 1976a: * *; – Kluge 2004: * * *

Autapomorphies of Palingenia/f2=g1.

(1) Larval frontal projection [see Fossoriae (2)] anteriorly is more or less denticulate, the lateralmost denticles are projected anteriorly more than others (thus, sometimes the frontal projection is bipointed like in Ephemera/fg10). Laterad of the frontal projection, there is a pair of denticles above antennae bases; laterad of them one more pair of denticles are present (Kluge 2004: Fig.75:C).

(2) Lateral edge of mandibular tusk [see (8) and Fimbriatotergaliae (8)] is flattened in a form of ridge and bears denticles; each denticle terminates by a stout spine-like seta (Kluge 2004: Fig.75:C, 76:D). Only in Palingenia/f4=g3, Mortogenesia and Plethogenesia these denticles are integral, without setae (Table).

(3) Maxilla with 1 canine only (instead of initial three) and with 1 dentiseta only [instead of initial two – see Bidentiseta (1)] (Kluge 2004: Fig.74:B). Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.1.33] and [1.1.37]).

(4) In larva anterior side of fore tibia [specialized as burrowing – see Fossoriae (1)] proximally with 2 oblique rows of long setae (Kluge 2004: Fig.74:D): a regular double row close to outer margin of tibia [see Cryptoprosternata (3C)]; proximad of it begins a regular single row, which continues as an irregular row on inner margin of tibia [see Cryptoprosternata (3D)] [see also (5) and (9)].

(5) Outer margin of larval fore tibia [see (4) and (9)] with protuberances bearing spine-like setae (Kluge 2004: Fig.74:E); these proberances are present in Pentagenia and majority of Anagenesia/g1, but only in Palingenia/f4=g3 and Anagenesia/g1-Mortogenesia they are substituted by large denticles lacking setae and similar to denticles on mandibular tusks [see (2)] and frons [see (1)].

(6) In larva each of abdominal segments III–VII ventrad of tergalial bases has a pair of long soft lateral processes; these processes are directed latero-posteriorly, curved dorsally and covered with long dense hairs. Unique apomorphy.

(7) In male imago and subimago fore leg has both claws blunt (non-unique character – see Index of characters [2.2.77]). Fore leg of male imago is only slightly longer than that of female, less than 1/2 of body length (i.e. shorter than in majority of mayflies).

Characters of Palingenia/f2=g1 of unclear phylogenetic status. 

(8) Mandibular tusks [see (2)] are curved laterally (Kluge 2004: Fig.76:D). Non-unique character, similar curvation in Ephemera/fg9.

(9) Apex of larval fore tibia [see (4) and (5)] projects posteriad of tarsus base and forms outer-apical denticle and inner-apical projection, with incision between them (Kluge 2004: Fig.74:D–E). Similar in Hexagenia/fg1 and Ichthybotus; possibly, symplesiomorphy [see Fossoriae (1)].

(10) Larval hind tibia [specialized – see Fimbriatotergaliae (9)] with projected inner-distal corner. Non-unique character, the same in Ephemera/fg9.

(11) On inner side of femur and tibia of larval hind leg spiny setae are absent. Probably a result of reduction [see Fimbriatotergaliae (9)].

Plesiomorphies of Palingenia/f2=g1. Larval and adult patella-tibial suture is developed on middle and hind legs (unlike Campsurus/fg1 and some others). Furcasternal protuberances are contiguous (unlike Campsurus/fg1, Caenotergaliae and some others – see Index of characters [2.2.23]).

Size. Fore wing length 11–30 mm.

Distribution. Holarctic, Oriental and Afrotropical Regions.

The taxon Palingenia/f2=g1 is divided into:

1. plesiomorphon Pentagenia

2. Palingenia/f3=g2
2.1. Palingenia/f4=g3

2.2. Anagenesia/g1

2.2.1. Mortogenesia

2.2.2. Chankagenesia

2.2.3. Anagenesia/g2

2.2.4. Plethogenesia

2.2.5. Cheirogenesia