CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA
Tetramerotarsata - Siphlaenigma)
Nomen hierarchicum: Siphlaenigma/fg(1) [fg:1962]
In circumscription fits:
gen. Siphlaenigma Penniket 1962: 389
subfam. Siphlaenigmatinae: McCafferty & Edmunds 1979: 6
fam. Siphlaenigmatidae Penniket 1962: 389
Siphlaenigma/fg(1): Kluge 2004: 100
References. Penniket 1962: ; Edmunds & Allen & Peters 1963: ; Tshernova 1970: ; Edmunds & Jensen & Berner 1976: ; Kluge 1997c: (plesiomorphies wrongly named "Apomorphies of Siphlaenigma"); Staniczek 1997: ; Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 1998: ; Kluge 2004: .
Characters of Siphlaenigma of unclear phylogenetic status.
(1) In female imago and subimago (unlike male) structure of fore tarsus is the same as of middle and hind tarsus [see Tetramerotarsata (1)]: tarsus is 4-segmented including 1st segment immobile fused with tibia. The same in some Turbanoculata (see Index of characters [2.2.75], [18.104.22.168], [2.2.83]).
(2) Maxillary palp has 3rd (distalmost) segment strongly diminished.
(4) In subimago of both sexes most segments of all tarsi are covered with pointed microlepides, only 1st+2nd segment of middle and hind legs and on female fore leg [see (1)] is covered with microtrichiae, like tibia. The same in some Turbanoculata (see Index of characters [2.2.75], [22.214.171.124], [2.2.83]).
Plesiomorphies of Siphlaenigma (unlike at least Turbanoculata).
In imago and subimago: Eyes of male are not divided into two portions. Subimaginal sclerites of lateropostnotal crest and katepimeron are not elongate, not convergent (Kluge 2004: Fig.26:A). Furcasternal protuberances are contiguous. On fore wing MA forms a symmetrical fork near middle of wing; marginal intercalaries are absent; hind wing is well-developed, nearly as long as 0.3 of fore wing length, retains triads RS, MA, MP and veins CuA and CuP (Penniket 1962: Fig.1). On fore legs of male all 5 segments are long. Posterior projection of abdominal segment IX (i.e. styliger of male and postgenital plate of female) is large. Gonostylus has 2 distal segments. Penis is well-developed, with intrinsic muscle. Imaginal paracercus is well-developed, subequal to cerci. Ganglion of abdominal segment VIII separate from that of segment VII.
In larva: Kinetodontium is jointed, prostheca of both mandibles is brush-like (Kluge 2004: Fig.26:C). Larval mesonotum has a prominent relief repeating that of winged stages (unlike majority of Ephemeroptera); fore protoptera are not fused with apex of scutellum. Malpighian tubes are coiled. Unlike some specialized Turbanoculata, larva has siphlonuroid appearance legs are able to stretch posteriorly; abdomen is able to make undulate movements; all tergalii IVII are present; all three caudalii have dense primary swimming setae and have no secondary swimming setae. Unlike some Turbanoculata, setae proximad of prostheca are absent (Kluge 2004: Fig.26:C). Larval and adult patella-tibial suture is developed on middle and hind legs only (unlike larval Turbanoculata-Anteropatellata).
Size. Fore wing length 79 mm (see Tetramerotarsata).
Distribution. New Zealand.
Nominal species in Siphlaenigma/fg(1):
edmundsi Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 1998 [Siphlaenigma] syn.subj. janae [Siphlaenigma]
janae Penniket 1962 [Siphlaenigma] ,/,//