CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

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Ephemera/fg10

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Fimbriatotergaliae Fossoriae Ephemera/fg9 - Ephemera/fg10)

Nomen hierarchicum: Ephemera/fg10 [f:1810; g:1758]  (sine Hexagenia; incl. Sinephemera, Afromera)

In circumscription fits:

 gen. Ephemera: Eaton 18831888: 58

 subfam. Ephemerinae: McCafferty 1991a: 354

 Ephemera/fg10: Kluge 2004: 235


References. Eaton 18831888: * *; Needham & Traver & Hsu 1935: * *; McCafferty & Edmunds 1973: * *; McCafferty 1975: ; Edmunds & Jensen & Berner 1976: * *; Kluge 2004: * * *


Autapomorphy of Ephemera/fg10.

(1) Larval frontal projection [see Fossoriae (2)] is bipointed (Kluge 2004: Fig.70:E).

Characters of Ephemera/fg10 of unclear phylogenetic status. 

(2) Larval antennal flagellum dorsally with whorls of long dense setae (Kluge 2004: Fig.70:C,E). Among Hexagenia/fg1 the same in Hexagenia/fg2, but not in Eatonica/g1.

(3) Larval fore tibia [burrowing see Fossoriae (1)] on distal margin has no incision and denticles (Kluge 2004: Fig.70:C) (unlike Ichthybotus, Hexagenia/fg1 and Palingenia/f1=g2). Probably a secondary simplification.

Plesiomorphies of Ephemera/fg10. Maxilla with 3 canines, both dentisetae [see Plesiomorphies of Ephemera/fg9] are well-developed; paraglossae are not stretched proximally (unlike Hexagenia/fg1). Vestige of tergalius I [see Ephemera/fg9 (4)] is bilamellate (Kluge 2004: Fig.70:C) (unlike Litobrancha). In imago and subimago of both sexes paracercus is not shortened or slightly shortened, being subequal to cerci (unlike Hexagenia/fg1); gonostylus with 2 distal segments (i.e. 4-segmented see Plesiomorphies of Ephemera/fg9).

Size. Fore wing length 820 mm.

Distribution. Holarctic, Oriental and Afrotropical Regions; dominate in Oriental and Palaearctic Regions.


The taxon Ephemera/fg10 is divided into:

1. plesiomorphon Sinephemera

2. Afromera

3. Ephemera/fg11

A number of insufficiently described Asian species have uncertain systematic position