CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

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Brachycercus/f1=g3

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Fimbriatotergaliae Caenotergaliae Caenoptera - Brachycercus/f1=g3)

Nomen hierarchicum: Brachycercus/f1=g3 [f:1924; g:1834] (incl. Cercobrachys, Insulibrachys)

In circumscription fits:

gen. Eurycaenis Bengtsson 1917: 186

gen. Brachycercus: Lestage 1924c: 62

subfam. Brachycercinae: Malzacher 1997: 550

Brachycercus/f1=g3: Kluge 2004: 284

Synonym: objective synonym of Brachycercus/fg:

Eurycaenis/g [g:1917]

Nominal taxa included:

Cercobrachys/g [g:1986]

Insulibrachys/g [f:2008; g:1986]

Sparbarus/fg [fg:2008]

Latineosus/fg [fg:2008]

Oriobrachys/g [fg:2008]

Susperatus/g [g:2008]

Alloretochus/g [g:2008]


References. Needham & Traver & Hsu 1935: * *; Koss & Edmunds 1974: *; Edmunds & Jensen & Berner 1976: * *; Soldan 1986: ' '; Kluge 1991a: ' ' '; Malzacher 1997: * *; McCafferty & Wang 2000: * *; Kluge 2004: * * * *


Autapomorphies of Brachycercus/f1=g3.

(1) Maxillary palp is 2-segmented. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.1.42]); among Caenotergaliae the same in Clypeocaenis/g2 only.

(2) Labial palp is 2-segmented: its initial 2nd segment is not separated by any means from 3rd segment and lost muscle (unlike all other Caenotergaliae). Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.1.55]).

(3) Larval head has 3 ocellar protuberances; in different species these protuberances can have form from small tubercles to long corners. Non-unique apomorphy: among Caenoptera ocellar tubercles are present also in some Caenis/f4=g2; similar ocellar protuberances are present in Vietnamella and some species of Drunella/fg1 (in Ephemerella/fg1).

(4) Larval body is more or less flattened dorsoventrally, sternites are relatively wider than in other Caenotergaliae; abdominal sternites are wider than tergites; abdominal tergite II lacks median projection [see Caenotergaliae (1)] (other projections of abdominal tergites are also absent); several middle abdominal segments (at least segments III-VI) have large lateral lobes, which are curved dorsally and overlap by sides gill opercula [see Caenotergaliae (1)].

(5) Larval legs [lacking patella-tibial suture see Caenoptera (17)] are slender; femur has uniform thickness, somewhat arched (unlike other Caenotergaliae whose femur in its middle part is thicker than basally and apically); claws are long, slender, slightly curved, without denticles (unlike many Caenis/f3=g1); middle and hind legs are similar and long, fore legs are much smaller (unlike other Caenotergaliae whose legs are equal or gradually increase from fore to hind ones).

(6) Egg with longitudinal crests (straight or somewhat spirally rolled, small and numerous or large and sparse) and with one polar cap [see Caenotergaliae (8)].

Plesiomorphies of Brachycercus/f1=g3. Prosternum is wide and rectangular (Kluge 2004: Fig.86:A); metanotum without transverse crest, flat, with scutellum distinctly projected posteriorly (the same in Madecocercus, unlike Caenis/f4=g2). Microtrichia near lateral and apical margins of ventral side of gill operculum [see Caenoptera (3)] have a form of simple spine-like processes (unlike Caenis/f3=g1); they do not form a regular row, being situated irregularly as a wide stripe; this stripe can be located at a distance from margin (in harrisella [B.] Kluge 2004: Fig.84:E), or close to margin (in tubulatus [B.], europaeus [B.] and corniger [B.]) or is reduced to a few microtrichia close to margin (in minutus [B.]). Gonostylus always with a longitudinal groove [see Caenoptera (5)] (Kluge 2004: Fig.84:AD). Larval protogonostyli are retained [being very small see Caenoptera (5)] (Kluge 2004: Fig.84:B).

Size. Fore wing length 38 mm (see Caenoptera).

Distribution: Holarctic, Oriental and Neotropical Regions.


Nominal species in Brachycercus/f1=g3:

 arcticus Soldán 1986 [Brachycercus] syn.subj. harrisella [Brachycercus]

 berneri Soldán 1986 [Brachycercus]

capnicus Zhou  & Sun & McCafferty 2004 [Brachycercus]

 cayo Sun & McCafferty 2008 [Latineosus]

choctaw Sun & McCafferty 2008 [Sparbarus]

 cibola Sun & McCafferty 2008 [Latineosus]

 colombianus Soldán 1986 [Cercobrachys]  typus nominis Latineosus

 corniger Kluge 1991 [Brachycercus] ,//,///

coushatta Sun & McCafferty 2008 [Sparbarus]

 cree Sun & Webb & McCafferty 2002 [Cercobrachys]

 edmundsi Soldán 1986 [Brachycercus] syn.subj. harrisella [Brachycercus]

 etowah Soldán 1986 [Cercobrachys]  typus nominis Cercobrachys

 europaeus Kluge 1991 [Brachycercus] ,-/,-/

 flavus Traver (in Needham & Traver & Hsu) 1935 [Brachycercus]

 floridicola Soldán 1986 [Brachycercus] syn.subj. berneri [Brachycercus]

 fox Sun & McCafferty 2008 [Cercobrachys]

 gilliesi Soldán & Landa 1991 [Brachycercus]

 harrisella Curtis 1834 [Brachycercus] typus nominis Brachycercus --/

 idei Lestage 1931 [Brachycercus] syn.obj. pallida [Eurycaenis] syn.subj. lacustris [Caenis]

 japonica Gose 1980 [Brachycercus]

 kabyliensis Soldán 1986 [Brachycercus]

lacustris Needham 1918 [Caenis] typus niminis Sparbarus

 lilliei Sun & McCafferty 2008 [Cercobrachys]

 maculatus Berner 1946 [Brachycercus]

 magnus Tshernova 1952 [Brachycercus] syn.subj. harrisella [Brachycercus]

 mahakam Sun & McCafferty 2008 [Oriobrachys] typus nominis Oriobrachys

miccosukee Sun & McCafferty 2008 [Sparbarus]

 minutus Tshernova 1952 [Brachycercus] --/

 nasutus Soldán 1986 [Brachycercus]

needhami Soldán 1986 [Insulibrachys]

nitida Traver 1932 [Eurycaenis]

ojibwe Sun & McCafferty 2008 [Brachycercus]  

 pallida Ide 1930 [Eurycaenis] syn.subj. lacustris [Caenis]

 pallidus Tshernova 1928 [Brachycercus] syn.subj. harrisella [Brachycercus]

 pennata Stephens 1836 [Caenis (Brachycercus)] in Brachycercus/f1

 peruanicus Soldán 1986 [Cercobrachys] typus nominis Alloretochus --/

petersorum Soldán 1986 [Cercobrachys]

 pini Soldán 1986 [Brachycercus] syn.subj. maculatus [Brachycercus]

 pomeiok Sun & McCafferty 2008 [Cercobrachys]

prudens McDunnough 1931 [Eurycaenis]   typus nominis Susperatus

serpentis Soldán 1986 [Cercobrachys]

 sigillatus Molineri 1914 [Alloretochus]  

tonkawa Sun & McCafferty 2008 [Susperatus]

 tuberculatus Soldán 1986 [Brachycercus]

 tubulatus Tshernova 1952 [Brachycercus]

 winnebago Sun & McCafferty 2008 [Cercobrachys]


Examined also:

sp. with large eys (Thailand) /

sp. (India)

sp.n. (Pai) --/

sp.n. (Mae Sae) //


See also:

Caenoptera INCERTAE SEDIS

Furcatergaliae INCERTAE SEDIS

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