Plesiomorphon Protopatellata

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna pm.Tridentiseta  
Tetramerotarsata Liberevenata Turbanoculata - pm.Protopatellata)

Nomen hierarchicum: Afroptilum/f1=Centroptiloides/g1 [f:1997; g:1918]

Nomen circumscribens: Protopatellata Kluge & Novikova 2011

In circumscription fits:

 subfam. Afroptilinae Kluge 1997: 533

 plesiomorphon Afroptilum/f1=Centroptiloides/g1: Kluge 2004: 105

 plesiomorphon Protopatellata Kluge & Novikova 2011: 5

References.  Kluge 1997c: * * (plesiomorphies are wrongly called "Apomorphies"); Kluge 2004: *; Kluge & Novikova 2011: * * *; Kluge 2015

Diagnostic plesiomorphiy of Protopatellata. In both sexes, larval, subimaginal and imaginal patella-tibial suture is present on middle and hind legs only. In some representatives the patella-tibial suture is lost on all legs, but is never present on fore legs (Kluge 2012: Fig.5-6) (unlike most larval and female Anteropatellata see Index of characters [1.2.18] and Index of characters [2.2.]).

Other plesiomorphies of Protopatellata

Setae on inner margin of mandibles [see Turbanoculata (6)] are usually present.

Larval abdominal terga usually with scales either in operculate sockets, or in non-operculate sockets [see Turbanoculata (12)] (see Index of characters [1.3.4]).

In subimago of both sexes at least most distal tarsomere of each leg is covered with pointed microlepides. The same in some Anteropatellata  (see Index of characters [2.2.75], [], [2.2.83]).

Subimaginal gonostyli buds under cuticle of mature larva are curved by the "Afroptilum-Cloeon-type" [see Turbanoculata (13)]: 2nd (the longest) segment is directed leterally. 3rd (distalmost) segment can be also directed laterally ("Afroptilum-type") (in sudafricanum [Centroptilum]), or is directed caudally ("Cloeon-type") (see Index of characters [2.3.9]); in Indocloeon folded gonostyli buds look unusually due to modification of its gonostyli [see below, Indocloeon (1)]. Exceptioon is made only by Rhithrocloeon/fg1, whose gonostyli and their buds have peculiar structure [see below, Rhithrocloeon/fg1 (1.2)].

On fore wing in each space only one marginal intercalary can be present [see Liberevenata (2)].

Size. Fore wing length 412 mm (see Tetramerotarsata). 

Distribution. Mainly Afrotropical Region; also Oriental and Holarctic Regions.

The plesiomorphon Protopatellata (or Afroptilum/f1=Centroptiloides/g1) is divided into:

.... Indocloeon/g1 (incl. Hindocloeon)

.... Rhithrocloeon/fg1

.... Crassabwa/g1 (incl. Susua)  

.... Dabulamanzia/g1

.... Potamocloeon

.... Centroptiloides/g2

.... Dicentroptilum

.... Afroptilum/f2=g1

.... Platycloeon/g1 

.... Monocentroptilum

.... Demoulinia

Combines characters of Protopatellata and Anteropatellata-Cloeon/fg1: Anafroptilum

Revision of these taxa is in progress