(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna pm.Tridentiseta  
Tetramerotarsata Liberevenata Turbanoculata   
? Protopatellata - Anafroptilum)
? Anteropatellata Cloeon/fg1 - Anafroptilum)

Nomen hierarchicum: Anafroptilum/g(1) [g:2012]

In circumscription fits:

— gen. Anafroptilum Kluge 2011: 372

References. Kluge 2012:361-376: *, * ; Kluge & Novikova 2017: *,

General characteristics.

Larva. Head not wide; frons between antennae forms parallel-sided elevation, whose margins can somewhat overlap antennal bases (Kluge 2012: Fig. 55). Both mandibles have incisor and kinetodontium separated nearly up to base; prostheca of left mandible has moderate width, terminates by several slender denticles; prostheca of right mandible very slender, terminates either by single point (kazlauskasi [Centroptilum]), or by two slender denticles (bifurcatum [Centroptilum]); setae proximad of prostheca present (Kluge 1983: Figs 115–116; Lowen & Flannagan 1991: Figs 17–18). Median setae-like spines of hypopharynx very short. Maxilla has biting edge rather wide; 3 canines and distal dentiseta teeth-like, curved at the same direction; middle and proximal dentisetae more slender; maxillary palp long and slender, consists of 3 segments of subequal length (Kluge 1983: Fig. 117; Lowen & Flannagan 1991: Fig. 19; Kluge & Novikova 1992: Fig. 3). Labium has paraglossal muscle fan-formed; 2nd segment of labial palp narrower than 3rd segment and contains muscle moving 3rd segment; 3rd segment strongly widened apically and truncate (Kluge 1983: Fig.118; Lowen & Flannagan 1991: Fig.20; Kluge & Novikova 1992: Fig.6; Kluge 2012: Fig.46)

Pronotum short, without projected antero-lateral angles (Kluge 1983: Fig.120), with straight transverse ridge near anterior margin; mesonotum with hind margin projected between protoptera. Metanotum with hind protoptera. Legs slender; femora of all legs slender and parallel-sided, fore femur somewhat thicker and shorter than middle and hind femora; fore tibia somewhat shorter than middle and hind tibiae; fore tarsus somewhat longer than middle and hind tarsi (Kluge 2012: Figs 38–40). Patella-tibial suture present on middle and hind legs (Kluge 2012: Fig.39), absent on fore legs (Kluge 2012: Fig.38). Femora, tibiae and tarsi have small stout pointed setae, which do not form regular rows; outer margin and apex of femur lack stout setae. Claw slender, slightly bent, with 2 rows of small denticles (Kluge 2011: Fig.40).

Abdomen narrow, equally convex dorsally and ventrally: being spread on slide, terga and sterna have equal width. Lateral margins of abdominal of segment IX and more anterior ones have pointed denticles (Kluge 2011: Fig.41). Terga and sterna covered by fine scales situated in wide semicircular sockets lacking operculae (Kluge 2011: Fig.44). Tergalii able for rhythmical respiratory vibration. Tergalii I–VI with anal margin more convex than costal margin; tergalius VII with anal margin less convex than costal margin; costal rib far not reaching tergalius apex, anal rib less developed (Lowen & Flannagan 1991: Fig. 21; Kluge 2012: Figs 47–53). Cerci and paracercus have subequal length, not long, bear swimming setae nearly up to apex, in middle part have dark rings at apex of each 4th segment (Lowen & Flannagan 1991: Fig. 13); hind margin of each segment with denticles, no one of each reaches ½ of segment length (unlike Procloeon/g1).

In mature male larva subimaginal gonostyli developing under larval cuticle are folded by «Cloeon-type»: 2nd segment bent laterally, 3rd segment bent medially (Kluge 2012: Fig.54).

Subimago and imago. Fore wings with no more than one marginal intercalary in each space (unlike Baetovectata). Hind wing either absent (in minor [Cloeon]), or more or less narrow, with curved costal projection (Kluge 1983: Fig.126; Lowen & Flannagan 1991: Fig.5). On middle and hind legs tibia slightly longer than femur; tarsus ½ of tibia length; proximal (1st+2nd) tarsal segment long; tarsus either has one apical thorn on 3rd tarsomere only, while 1st+2nd and 4th tarsomeres lack apical-ventral thorns (kazlauskasi [Centroptilum]), or has two apical thorns — on 1st+2nd and on 3rd tarsomeres (bifurcatum [Centroptilum]); the same on fore leg of female. In subimago all segments of all tarsi covered with pointed microlepides. Male genitals similar to that of Cloeon/fg1: styligeral muscle well-developed; 2nd segment of gonostylus (fused with 1st segment) narrower than 1st segment, widened apically; distal (3rd) segment petiolate; penial bridge with wide median projection; gonovectes completely fused with penial bridge (Kluge 2012: Fig.45).



Formerly representatives of Anafroptilum were attributed to Centroptilum. In contrast to Centroptilum and other Anteropatellata, Anafroptilum has primitive position of patello-tibial suture, characteristic for Protopatellata: In larva, subimago and imago of both sexes patella-tibial suture is developed only on middle and hind legs, being absent on fore legs (Kluge 2012: Figs 38,39).

The following character of Anafroptilum are in common with Centroptilum and Cloeon/fg1 (incl. Procloeon): Labial palp has 3rd segment truncate and 2nd segment non-projected. Larval legs slender; femur parallel-sided, without row of setae on outer margin and without two apical setae; claw slender, with two rows of denticles. Larval abdominal terga with scales situated in semicircular sockets lacking operculae at angles. Larval caudalii in middle part with dark rings at apex of each 4th segment.

The following character of Anafroptilum are in common with Cloeon/fg1 (incl. Procloeon): Abdominal segments VIII and IX with spines forming longitudinal rows on lateral margins. Gonovectes fused with penial bridge (in contrast to Centroptilum).

Size. Fore wing length 5 mm.

Distribution. Oriental Region, East Palearactic and Nearctic.

Nominal species in Anafroptilum/g1:

album McDunnough 1926 [Centroptilum]

 asperatum Traver (in Needhan & Traver & Hsu) 1935 [Centroptilum]  

bifurcatum McDunnough 1924 [Centroptilum]  ,,

conturbatum McDunnough 1929 [Centroptilum]

convexum Ide 1930 [Centroptilum] — syn.subj. album [Centroptilum]

 elsa Traver (in Needham & Traver & Hsu) 1935 [Centroptilum] — syn.subj. asperatum [Centroptilum]

kazlauskasi Kluge 1983 [Centroptilum] — typus nominis Anafroptilum --/

 minor McDunnough 1926 [Cloeon]

odontostylus Kluge & Novikova 2017 [Anafroptilum] --

 oreophilum Edmunds 1954 [Centroptilum] — syn.subj. asperatum [Centroptilum]

orthostylus Kluge & Novikova 2017 [Anafroptilum] --, -/

ozarkensum Wiersema & Burian 2000 [Centroptilum]

selanderorum Edmunds 1954 [Centroptilum] — syn.subj. bifurcatum [Centroptilum]

semirufa McDnnough 1926 [Centroptilum]

victoriae McDunnough 1938 [Centroptilum]

walshi McDunnough 1929 [Centroptilum] — syn.subj. album [Centroptilum]

Examined also:

See also:

Turbanoculata INCERTAE SEDIS