CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

z 

Teloganodes/f1=g3

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Ephemerella/fg1 Pantricorythi Melanemerella/f1=Teloganodes/g1 Melanemerella/f2=Teloganodes/g2  Teloganodes/f1=g3)

Nomen hierarchicum: Teloganodes/f1=g3 [f:1965; g:1882] (sine Teloganella; incl. Macafertiella, Dudgeodes, Derlethina)

In circumscription fits:

— gen. Teloganodes Eaton 1882: 208

— Teloganodes/fg1: Kluge 2004: 320

Nominal taxa included:  

Macafertiella/g [g:1996]

Dudgeodes/g [g:2008]

Derlethina/g [g:2008]


References. Eaton 1883–1888: *; – Ulmer 1924c: '; – 1939: ' '; – Wang & McCafferty 1996a (Macafertiella): '; – Kluge 2004: * * * *; – Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008:


Autapomorphies of Teloganodes/f1=g3.

(1) On tergalii beginning from pair III, two branches of dorsal lobe [see Melanemerella/f2=Teloganodes/g2 (1)] are deeply separated by a cleft. (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:E–H).

Various species have different number of tergalii [tergalii VII are always absent – see Melanemerella/f1=Teloganodes/g1 (1) and Table]: in insignis [Macafertiella], tuberculatus [Teloganodes] and kodai [Teloganodes] tergalii III–V have dorsal lobe cleft and ventral lobe bifurcate with processes, tergalius VI has simple dorsal lobe and no ventral lobe (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:E); in sp.T4 and species originally attributed to Dudgeodes, tergalii III–IV have dorsal lobe cleft and ventral lobe bifurcate with processes, tergalius V has cleft dorsal lobe and no ventral lobe, tergalius VI is lost (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:F); in jacobusi [Teloganodes] and hubbardi [Teloganodes] tergalii III–IV also have dorsal lobe cleft and ventral lobe bifurcate with processes, tergalius V has simple dorsal lobe and no ventral lobe, tergalius VI is lost (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:G); in eloisae [Derlethina] only tergalius III has dorsal lobe cleft and ventral lobe bifurcate with processes, tergalius IV has integral dorsal lobe and no ventral lobe, tergalii V–VI are lost (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:H).

(2) Larval, subimaginal and imaginal paracercus is vestigial. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.3.64]); among Ephemerella/fg1 the same in Dicercomyzon only.

(3) Maxilla is somewhat modified (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:C): canines (which are initially three) are fused in a single elongate canine with a denticle on inner-ventral margin; at least proximal dentiseta [among two dentisetae – see Bidentiseta (1)] is pectinate; biting edge of maxilla is shortened, bears only 2 setae of inner-dorsal row proximad of dentisetae, and only 3 setae of inner-ventral row (as larva uses its maxillae for biting, canines and dentisetae can be ground off, thus larva shortly after moult should be examined). Non-unique apomorphies; maxillary canines of Vietnamella are similarly fused and elongate.

(4) On imaginal and subimaginal mesoscutum [see Ephemerella/fg1 (10)] lateroparapsidal suture is not curved laterally, but convergent with medioparapsidal suture; subimaginal lateral pigmented area occupies the whole sublateroscutum, whole submedioscutum and latero-posterior part of medioscutum, leaving a non-pigmented median area, which narrows posteriorly (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:A).

Microtrichia cover most part of scutum, being absent on lateroscutum and posterior scutal protuberances. This is different from Ephemerella/fg2, Vietnamella and Melanemerella/fg1, whose pigmented area is smaller [see Ephemerella/fg1 (10)] and from Tricoryptera, whose pigmented area is larger or non-expressed; possibly, synapomorphy with Tricoryptera. 

Characters of Teloganodes/f1=g3 of unclear phylogenetic status.

(5) Larval abdominal terga always lack paired projections [see Ephemerella/fg1 (19)]: they can either bear unpaired median projection on hind margin, or have no projections (non-unique character – see Index of characters [1.3.3]).

(6) Tergalii I [initially stick-like – see Ephemerella/fg1 (13)] are lost. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.3.20]).

(7) Eyes of male are large, divided into two portions (as plesiomorphic for Ephemeroptera, but secondarily restored in some taxa – see Index of characters [2.1.3]). 

(8) Infrascutellum is interrupted medially, scutellum with enlarged lateral impressions (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:A). Among Pantricorythi, the same in Tricoryptera (possibly synapomorphy); the same in Caenoptera (see Classifications of Furcatergaliae II).

(9) Hind wing is diminished (as long as 0.13–0.14 of fore wing length) and modified: costal projection is well-expressed, in most species situated at the middle of costal margin, in eloisae [Derlethina] – near apex; Sc does not reach wing apex and terminates at base of costal projection; MP is non-branched; there are no veins behind MP (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:D). Non-unique character, the same in some Ephemerella/fg2 (Teloganopsis, Hyrtanella/f2=Crinitella/g1) and some Leptophlebia/fg1. In Tricoryptera hind wing is under greater reduction, and in other Pantricorythi Sc goes up to wing apex. Possibly, synapomorphy with Tricoryptera.

 

Variable characters of Teloganodes/f1=g3. Larval head either has normal shape, or is strongly flattened, with frons margined by a row of long setae and overlapping clypeus, labrum and mandibles (in eloisae [Derlethina]); in this case mandibles are strongly shortened (McCafferty & Wang 1997: Fig.10,28,37) (similar to some Melanemerella/fg1 and others – see Index of characters [1.1.4]).

Size. Fore wing length 4–12 mm. 

Distribution. Oriental Region.

Comment. Teloganodes/f1=g3 can be divided into 4 subordinated taxa, which clearly differ one from another by structure of larval tergalii; three of them include the type species of the genus-group names Macafertiella, Dudgeodes and Derlethina correspondingly [see (1) and Fig.96]. As larva of the type species of Teloganodes is unknown, it is unclear, which of these four taxa should bear the name Teloganodes in strict sense. According to Sartori, Peters and Hubbard (2008), imaginal characters of the type species indicate that it can belong either to Macafertiella (Fig.96:E), or to the group which has tergalii as in Fig.96:G. Until this question is not clarified, we can not supply the four taxa with correct typified names. Because of this, here the taxon Teloganodes/f1=g3 remains to be undivided to subordinate taxa.


Nominal species in Teloganodes/f1=g3:  

bharathidasani Anbalagan (in Anbalagan & Balachandran & Kannan & Dinakaran & Krishnan 2015) [Dudgeodes]

celebensis Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Dudgeodes] --/

dentata Navás 1932 [Teloganodes]

eloisae Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Derlethina] — typus nominis Derlethina = sp.T3: Kluge 2004 /,//

hubbardi Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Teloganodes] /

hutanis Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Dudgeodes]

insignis Wang & McCafferty 1996 [Macafertiella] ,/

jacobusi Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Teloganodes] = sp.T2: Kluge 2004 -, --/

kodai Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Teloganodes] --/

lugens Navás 1933 [Teloganodes]

major Eaton 1885 [Teloganodes]

palnius Selvakumar & Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus (in Selvakumar & Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus & Janarthyanan & Arumugam) 2014 [Dudgeodes] --

pescadori Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Dudgeodes] — typus nominis Dudgeodes

romani Martynov & Palatov & Boonsoong 2016 [Dudgeodes]

sartorii Selvakumar & Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus (in Selvakumar & Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus & Janarthyanan & Arumugam) 2014 [Teloganodes]   --/

stephani Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Dudgeodes] = sp.T1: Kluge 2004 /,,//

tamiraparaniae Selvakumar & Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus (in Selvakumar & Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus & Janarthyanan & Arumugam) 2014 [ Derlethina] --

tristis Hagen 1858 [Cloe] — typus nominis Teloganodes

tuberculatus Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Teloganodes]

ulmeri Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Dudgeodes]


Examined also:

sp.T4: Kluge 2004 (Thailand)

sp.n. (Sulawesi) --


See also: 

Teloganodes spp.

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