CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

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Teloganodes/f1=g3

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Ephemerella/fg1 Pantricorythi Melanemerella/f1=Teloganodes/g1 Melanemerella/f2=Teloganodes/g2  Teloganodes/f1=g3)

Nomen hierarchicum: Teloganodes/f1=g3 [f:1965; g:1882] (sine Teloganella; incl. Macafertiella, Dudgeodes, Derlethina)

In circumscription fits:

— gen. Teloganodes Eaton 1882: 208

— Teloganodes/fg1: Kluge 2004: 320

Nominal taxa included:  

Macafertiella/g [g:1996]

Dudgeodes/g [g:2008]

Derlethina/g [g:2008]


References. Eaton 1883–1888: *; – Ulmer 1924c: '; – 1939: ' '; – Wang & McCafferty 1996a (Macafertiella): '; – Kluge 2004: * * * *; – Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008:


Autapomorphies of Teloganodes/f1=g3.

(1) On tergalii beginning from pair III, two branches of dorsal lobe [see Melanemerella/f2=Teloganodes/g2 (1)] are deeply separated by a cleft. (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:E–H).

Various species have different number of tergalii [tergalii VII are always absent – see Melanemerella/f1=Teloganodes/g1 (1) and Table]: in insignis [Macafertiella], tuberculatus [Teloganodes] and kodai [Teloganodes] tergalii III–V have dorsal lobe cleft and ventral lobe bifurcate with processes, tergalius VI has simple dorsal lobe and no ventral lobe (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:E); in sp.T4 and species originally attributed to Dudgeodes, tergalii III–IV have dorsal lobe cleft and ventral lobe bifurcate with processes, tergalius V has cleft dorsal lobe and no ventral lobe, tergalius VI is lost (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:F); in jacobusi [Teloganodes] and hubbardi [Teloganodes] tergalii III–IV also have dorsal lobe cleft and ventral lobe bifurcate with processes, tergalius V has simple dorsal lobe and no ventral lobe, tergalius VI is lost (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:G); in eloisae [Derlethina] only tergalius III has dorsal lobe cleft and ventral lobe bifurcate with processes, tergalius IV has integral dorsal lobe and no ventral lobe, tergalii V–VI are lost (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:H).

(2) Larval, subimaginal and imaginal paracercus is vestigial. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.3.64]); among Ephemerella/fg1 the same in Dicercomyzon only.

(3) Maxilla is somewhat modified (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:C): canines (which are initially three) are fused in a single elongate canine with a denticle on inner-ventral margin; at least proximal dentiseta [among two dentisetae – see Bidentiseta (1)] is pectinate; biting edge of maxilla is shortened, bears only 2 setae of inner-dorsal row proximad of dentisetae, and only 3 setae of inner-ventral row (as larva uses its maxillae for biting, canines and dentisetae can be ground off, thus larva shortly after moult should be examined). Non-unique apomorphies; maxillary canines of Vietnamella are similarly fused and elongate.

(4) On imaginal and subimaginal mesoscutum [see Ephemerella/fg1 (10)] lateroparapsidal suture is not curved laterally, but convergent with medioparapsidal suture; subimaginal lateral pigmented area occupies the whole sublateroscutum, whole submedioscutum and latero-posterior part of medioscutum, leaving a non-pigmented median area, which narrows posteriorly (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:A).

Microtrichia cover most part of scutum, being absent on lateroscutum and posterior scutal protuberances. This is different from Ephemerella/fg2, Vietnamella and Melanemerella/fg1, whose pigmented area is smaller [see Ephemerella/fg1 (10)] and from Tricoryptera, whose pigmented area is larger or non-expressed; possibly, synapomorphy with Tricoryptera. 

Characters of Teloganodes/f1=g3 of unclear phylogenetic status.

(5) Larval abdominal terga always lack paired projections [see Ephemerella/fg1 (19)]: they can either bear unpaired median projection on hind margin, or have no projections (non-unique character – see Index of characters [1.3.3]).

(6) Tergalii I [initially stick-like – see Ephemerella/fg1 (13)] are lost. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.3.20]).

(7) Eyes of male are large, divided into two portions (as plesiomorphic for Ephemeroptera, but secondarily restored in some taxa – see Index of characters [2.1.3]). 

(8) Infrascutellum is interrupted medially, scutellum with enlarged lateral impressions (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:A). Among Pantricorythi, the same in Tricoryptera (possibly synapomorphy); the same in Caenoptera (see Classifications of Furcatergaliae II).

(9) Hind wing is diminished (as long as 0.13–0.14 of fore wing length) and modified: costal projection is well-expressed, in most species situated at the middle of costal margin, in eloisae [Derlethina] – near apex; Sc does not reach wing apex and terminates at base of costal projection; MP is non-branched; there are no veins behind MP (Kluge 2004: Fig.96:D). Non-unique character, the same in some Ephemerella/fg2 (Teloganopsis, Hyrtanella/f2=Crinitella/g1) and some Leptophlebia/fg1. In Tricoryptera hind wing is under greater reduction, and in other Pantricorythi Sc goes up to wing apex. Possibly, synapomorphy with Tricoryptera.

 

Variable characters of Teloganodes/f1=g3. Larval head either has normal shape, or is strongly flattened, with frons margined by a row of long setae and overlapping clypeus, labrum and mandibles (in eloisae [Derlethina]); in this case mandibles are strongly shortened (McCafferty & Wang 1997: Fig.10,28,37) (similar to some Melanemerella/fg1 and others – see Index of characters [1.1.4]).

Size. Fore wing length 4–12 mm. 

Distribution. Oriental Region.


Nominal species in Teloganodes/f1=g3:  

bauernfeindi Garces & Sartori (in Garces & Sartori & Freitag 2020) [Dudgeodes]

bharathidasani Anbalagan (in Anbalagan & Balachandran & Kannan & Dinakaran & Krishnan 2015) [Dudgeodes]

celebensis Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Dudgeodes] --/

dentata Navás 1932 [Teloganodes]

eloisae Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Derlethina] — typus nominis Derlethina = sp.T3: Kluge 2004 /,//

freitagi Garces & Sartori (in Garces & Sartori & Freitag 2020) [Dudgeodes]

hubbardi Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Teloganodes]

hutanis Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Dudgeodes]

insignis Wang & McCafferty 1996 [Macafertiella]  

jacobusi Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Teloganodes] = sp.T2: Kluge 2004 -, --/

kodai Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Teloganodes] --/

lugens Navás 1933 [Teloganodes]

luntian Garces & Sartori (in Garces & Sartori & Freitag 2020) [Dudgeodes]

major Eaton 1885 [Teloganodes]

palnius Selvakumar & Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus (in Selvakumar & Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus & Janarthyanan & Arumugam) 2014 [Dudgeodes] --

pangantihoni Garces & Sartori (in Garces & Sartori & Freitag 2020) [Dudgeodes]

pescadori Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Dudgeodes] — typus nominis Dudgeodes

romani Martynov & Palatov & Boonsoong 2016 [Dudgeodes]

sartorii Selvakumar & Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus (in Selvakumar & Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus & Janarthyanan & Arumugam) 2014 [Teloganodes]   --/

stephani Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Dudgeodes] = sp.T1: Kluge 2004 /,,//

tabang Garces & Sartori (in Garces & Sartori & Freitag 2020) [Dudgeodes]

tamiraparaniae Selvakumar & Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus (in Selvakumar & Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus & Janarthyanan & Arumugam) 2014 [Derlethina] --

tristis Hagen 1858 [Cloe] — typus nominis Teloganodes

tuberculatus Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Teloganodes] --/

ulmeri Sartori (in Sartori & Peters & Hubbard 2008) [Dudgeodes]

vonrinteleni Garces & Sartori (in Garces & Sartori & Freitag 2020) [Dudgeodes]


Examined also:

sp.T4: Kluge 2004 (Thailand)

sp.n. (Sulawesi) --

sp.n. (Sri Lanka) --/


See also: 

Teloganodes spp.

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