CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

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Cinygma

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Branchitergaliae
Heptagennota Pentamerotarsata Radulapalpata 
- Cinygma)

Nomen hierarchicum: Cinygma/fg(1) [f:1988; g:1885]

In circumscription fits:

gen. Cinygma: McDunnough 1933: 74

tribus Cinygmini Kluge 1988: 303

tribus Cinygmatini: Wang & McCafferty 2004: 44

Cinygma/fg(1): Kluge 2004: 188


References. McDunnough 1933: *; Needham & Traver & Hsu 1935: *; Tshernova 1949 (Heptagenia abnormis): '; Edmunds & Jensen & Berner 1976: *; Tshernova 1976: *; Lehmkuhl 1979a: ' '; Kluge 1988: * *; 1993: * *; 2004: * * *


Autapomorphies of Cinygma.

(1) Labrum is strongly narrowed, narrowing from its base toward apex, its width at any place is less than length (Tshernova 1949: Fig.4:2). Unique apomorphy among Heptagennota [see Heptagennota (1)].

(2) Maxilla [see also (5)] has a single canine developed (unlike other Radulapalpata, which have all three canines subequal); on apical margin of maxilla pectinate setae [see Radulapalpata (3)] are completely lost, distal margin of maxilla is entirely covered with dense long setae (Kluge 2004: Fig.61:D,H). Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.1.32]).

(3) Glossae [initially pyramidal see Radulapalpata (1)] are narrow at bases and strongly widened distally, roundish-triangular (Kluge 2004: Fig.61:I). Unique apomorphy.

Characters of Cinygma of unclear phylogenetic status.

(4) Each superlingua is widening toward its apex (Kluge 2004: Fig.61:G), lateral margins of superlinguae are divergent (unlike majority of Rhithrogena/fg1), but apices are not curved laterally (unlike Heptagenia/f5=g4). Shape of superlinguae is somewhat similar to that of Bleptus.

(5) On maxilla [see (2)] ventral row of setae [see Branchitergaliae (1)] is straight, at apex not curved laterally (Kluge 2004: Fig.61:D). The same in Paegniodes and Epeorus/fg1; possibly, symplesiomorphy.

(6) 2nd+3rd segment of labial palp [specialized as scraping see Radulapalpata (1)] is blunt, thus its field of scraping setae terminates close to the end of sclerotized ridge (Kluge 2004: Fig.61:J). The same in Heptagenia/f7=g6; possibly, independently appeared apomorphy. In Kageronia, Ecdyonurus/fg1 and Rhithrogena/fg1 form of this segment is different.

(7) Outer-dorsal margin of larval femur [flattened see Heptagennota (1)] bears a regular row of long stout setae. Non-unique apomorphy: similar setal row occurs in some other rheophilous mayflies. Among Radulapalpata the same setal row is present in Rhithrogena/fg1; possibly synapomorphy; similar, but less dorsal row is present in Ecdyonurus/fg1.

(8) Tergalii lost ability of rhythmical respiratory movements. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.3.30]); among Radulapalpata the same in Rhithrogena/fg1; possibly synapomorphy [for comment see Rhithrogena/fg1 (6) below].

(9) Larval caudalii lack whorls of stout setae on hind margins of segments. Among Radulapalpata the same in Rhithrogena/fg1 (possibly synapomorphy) and Raptoheptagenia, while in Heptagenia/f5=g4 whorls of stout setae are present.

(10) Primary swimming setae [see Pentamerotarsata (6)] are lost. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.3.66]).

Plesiomorphies of Cinygma (unlike Rhithrogena/fg1). Maxillary palp is not so strongly specialized as in Rhithrogena/fg1 (Kluge 2004: Fig.61:D). Labial palp without bifurcate setae. Imaginal and subimaginal lateroparapsidal sutures are not curved laterally, terminate near medioparapsidal sutures (Kluge 2004: Fig.61:AB). Larval and adult patella-tibial suture is developed on middle and hind legs only (unlike larval Rhithrogena/fg3).

Variable characters of Cinygma. On hind wing bifurcation of MA is present in integrum [C.] and lyriformis [E.] (like in all other Radulapalpata), but is lost in dimicki [C.] (non-unique apomorphy see Index of characters [2.2.67]).

Size. Fore wing length 1113 mm.

Distribution. Amphipacific Sector of Holarctic: All 3 species occur in Western Nearctic, and only one of them lyriformis [E.] is distributed in Eastern Palaearctic including Urals.


Nominal species in Cinygma/fg(1):

 abnormis Tshernova 1949 [Heptagenia] syn.subj. lyriformis [Ecdyonurus]

 dimicki McDunnough 1934 [Cinygma]

hyalinus Esben-Petersen 1916 [Ecdyonurus] nom.praeocc. syn.obj. peterseni [Ecdyonurus]  syn.subj. lyriformis [Ecdyonurus]

 integrum Eaton 1885 [Cinygma]

 lyriformis McDunnough 1924 [Ecdyonurus]  --/

 peterseni Lestage 1930 [Ecdyonurus] syn.subj. lyriformis [Ecdyonurus]


See also:

Radulapalpata INCERTAE SEDIS

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