CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

z 

Ephemerythus/fg1

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Ephemerella/fg1 Pantricorythi Tricoryptera Afrotricorythi - Ephemerythus)

Nomen hierarchicum: Ephemerythus/fg1 [fg:1960] (incl. Tricomerella, Limnokijara)

In circumscription fits:

— gen. Ephemerythus Gillies 1960: 35

— subfam. Ephemerythinae Gillies 1960: 35

— fam. Ephemerythidae: McCafferty & Wang 2000: 49

— Ephemerythus/fg1: Kluge 2004: 330

Nominal taxa included: 

Tricomerella/g [g:1964]

Limnokijara/g [g:2006]


References. Kimmins 1955 (Ephemerellidae, genus uncertain): ; – Gillies 1960: * *; – Edmunds & Allen & Peters 1963: *; Demoulin 1964b: '; – 1965c: ' – McCafferty & Wang 2000: * *; – Kluge 2004: * *; – Kluge 2010: * * *


Characters of Ephemerythus of unclear phylogenetic status. 

(1) Tergalii II are enlarged and serve as gill opercula, covering the rest tergalii (Demoulin 1964b: Fig.1A); they are unable to rhythmic respiratory movements; they can only press to the body (at rest) and rise up (to allow other tergalii to make fast rhythmic respiratory movements). Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.3.39] and Table).

Tergalii II–V can retain bifurcate ventral lobe with processes [see Ephemerella/fg1 (7)], tergalii VI have no ventral lobe (Kluge 2010: Fig.10-14); sometimes tergalii V have no ventral lobe, sometimes tergalii VI are lost [tergalii I and VII are always lost – see Tricoryptera (5) and (6)].

(2) On fore wing free marginal intercalaries are present, mainly 2 in each space (Kluge 2004: Fig.99:A) (as in many other Ephemerella/fg1 – see Index of characters [2.2.55]).

(3) Hind wing [of peculiar structure – see Tricoryptera (2)] has costal projection directed anteriorly-distally; Sc terminates at wing margin just distad of costal projection, its apex is connected with RA by a constant oblique crossvein (Kluge 2004: Fig.99:C). Non-unique character (see Index of characters [2.2.62] and [2.2.63]); it can not be compared with other Afrotricorythi, as their hind wings are always lost. In selected female specimens of Ephemerythus hind wings are also lost (Kluge 2010: Fig.1-5).

(4) In male larva caudalii (cerci and paracercus) are thickened in proximal part, unlike caudalii of female, which have usual form. In male imago (but not in subimago) caudalii are very long. The same in Tricorygnatha, Leptohyphes/fg1 and Caenoptera (Kluge 2004: Fig.103:E–F), unlike Machadorythus and Dicercomyzon.

Plesiomorphies of Ephemerythus. Unlike Tricorygnatha and Dicercomyzon, mouth apparatus is non-specialized, maxilla is biting [see Ephemerella/fg1 (16)], with 3 canines (ventral of them can be serrate) and 2 dentisetae [see Bidentiseta (1)].

In imago: Eyes of male are diminished, but slightly larger than in female (see Index of characters [2.1.3]). Mesonotum [see Ephemerella/fg1 (10)] retains curvation of lateroparapsidal suture and has no transverse interscutal suture (Kluge 2010: Fig.20) (unlike Tricorygnatha and some others – see Index of characters [2.2.9] and [2.2.10]); . Imaginal wing without setae on amphitornal margin (unlike Tricorygnatha and Leptohyphes/fg1). At rest, subimago and imago keep wings raised up (unlike Tricorygnatha and some others). All claws, including male fore leg, are ephemeropteroid (at least in kiboensis [E.] and niger [E.]).

Size. Fore wing length 5–6 mm (see Tricoryptera). 

Distribution. Afrotropical Region.


Nominal species in Ephemerythus/fg1: 

dissimillimus Kopelke 1980 [Ephemerythus] — syn.subj. niger [Ephemerythus]

kiboensis Gillies 1960 [Ephemerythus] — typus nominis Limnokijara  --/

niger Gillies 1960 [Ephemerythus] — typus nominis Ephemerythus  --/

pictus Gillies 1960 [Ephemerythus] --/

straeleni Demoulin 1964 [Ephemerythus (Tricomerella)] — typus nominis Tricomerella — syn.subj. niger [Ephemerythus]

ugandanus Kluge 2010 [Ephemerythus niger] --/


Examined also:

subsp.n. (Zambia) [Ephemerythus niger] --/

sp. T: Kluge 2010 (= Ephemerellidae gen.sp.: Kimmins 1955)

sp. C: Kluge 2010


See also: 

Afrotricorythi INCERTAE SEDIS

Furcatergaliae INCERTAE SEDIS

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