CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

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Machadorythus

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Ephemerella/fg1 Pantricorythi Tricoryptera Afrotricorythi - Machadorythus)

Nomen hierarchicum: Machadorythus/fg(1) [f:1963; g:1959]

In circumscription fits:

gen. Machadorythus Demoulin 1959: 251

subfam. Machadorythinae Edmunds & Allen & Peters 1963:17

fam. Machadorythidae: McCafferty & Wang 2000: 50

Machadorythus/fg(1): Kluge 2004: 332


References. Demoulin 1959: ; Edmunds & Allen & Peters 1963: ; Peters 1981: ; Elouard & Gillies 1989: ; McCafferty & Wang 2000: ; Kluge 2004:


Autapomorphy of Machadorythus.

(1) Abdominal tergum VII [not bearing tergalii see Tricoryptera (6)] in larva, subimago and imago is enlarged, with elevated middle of posterior margin and with a pair of ridges, which stretch from this convexity to anterior-lateral corners of the tergum (Demoulin 1959: Fig.1; Peters 1981: Fig.2728; Elouard & Gillies 1989: Fig.1,3). Unique character; probably this is connected with an operculate-gilled specialization of larva [see (5)].

Characters of Machadorythus of unclear phylogenetic status: possible synapomorphies with Tricorygnatha.

(2) On middle and hind legs of subimago and imago 1st tarsal segment [shortened and fused with tibia see Furcatergaliae (2)] is completely fused with 2nd tarsal segment, without any trace of suture between them, so that tarsus can be interpreted as 4-segmented (if take into account long 1st+2nd segment immobile fused with tibia), or as 3-segmented (if count only mobile 3rd5th segments); on fore leg of subimago and imago of both sexes suture between 1st and 2nd segments is retained (Kluge 2004: Fig.99:EF). Thus, tarsi of middle and hind legs are indistinguishable from that of Tetramerotarsata (Kluge 2004: Fig.27:E). Besides Machadorythus, fusion of 1st and 2nd tarsal segments takes place in Tricorygnatha (where these segments are fused on all legs of imago and subimago see Index of characters [2.2.76] and [2.2.84]). Unlike Tricorygnatha, in Machadorythus fusion of 1st tarsal segment with tibia is retained.

(3) Maxillary palp [initially vestigial see Ephemerella/fg1 (1)] has 1st and 2nd segments secondarily elongated, 3rd segment is lost. Similar structure of maxillary palp in Tricorygnatha; possibly, synapomorphy.

(4) Glossae, paraglossae and mentum are completely fused together. The same in Tricorygnatha and Coryphorus (but shape of labium in all three taxa is different).

Other characters of unclear phylogenetic status.

(5) Tergalii II are larger than others and serve as gill opercula. Non-unique apomorphy: Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.3.39] and Table).

(6) On fore wing marginal intercalaries are present at least in female; in male they are either present, or absent (personal communication by J.G. Peters). Non-unique character (see Index of characters [2.2.55]).

(7) Hind wings [initially vestigial see Tricoryptera (2)] are lost. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [2.2.59]).

(8) On fore leg of male imago both claws are blunt (in subimago ephemeropteroid) (Kluge 2004: Fig.99:E). Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [2.2.77]); the same in many other Tricoryptera.

Plesiomorphies of Machadorythus. Unlike Tricorygnatha and Dicercomyzon, maxilla is biting, non-specialized, with well-developed canines and 2 dentisetae [see Bidentiseta (1)]. Unlike Tricorygnatha, male larval caudalii are not thickened.

In imago and subimago: Eyes of male are large. Mesonotum [without outlined lateral pigmented area see Tricoryptera (4)] retains curved lateroparapsidal suture [see Ephemerella/fg1 (10)] and has no transverse interscutal suture (unlike Tricorygnatha and some others see Index of characters [2.2.9] and [2.2.10]). Imaginal wing without setae on amphitornal margin (unlike Tricorygnatha and Leptohyphes/fg1).

Size. Fore wing length 47 mm (see Tricoryptera). 

Distribution. Afrotropical Region.


Nominal species in Machadorythus/fg(1):

maculatus Kimmins 1949 [Tricorythus] --/

palanguim Demoulin 1959 [Machadorythus] syn.subj. maculatus [Tricorythus]


Examined also:

sp.M1: Kluge 2004 (Uganda) ,


See also: 

Afrotricorythi INCERTAE SEDIS

Furcatergaliae INCERTAE SEDIS

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