CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

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Pantricorythi, or Tricorythus/fg1

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Ephemerella/fg1 - Pantricorythi)

Nomen hierarchicum: Tricorythus/fg1 [f:1942; g:1868] (incl. Vietnamella, Austremerella, Melanemerella, Teloganodes, Indoganodes)

Nomen circumscribens:  Pantricorythi Kluge 2004: 316

In circumscription fits:

 Tricorythus/fg1: Kluge 2000: 252

 Pantricorythi, or Tricorythus/fg1: Kluge 2004: 316


References. Kluge 2004: * * * *


Autapomorphies of Pantricorythi.

(1) Larval fore femur bears a regular row of setae, which crosses anterior (dorsal) side of femur near its middle and continues distally as a longitudinal row on outer margin of femur; proximad of this row on outer margin of femur such setae are absent; on middle and hind legs, in difference to the fore leg, row of setae borders entire outer margin and usually crosses dorsal side of femur close to its base  (Kluge 2004: Fig.89:IJ, 100:EF). In some species femoral setal rows are irregular or lost, so this character can not be used as diagnostic for every species, but it occurs at least in some representatives of each major group of Pantricorythi (Vietnamella, Austremerella, many Melanemerella/fg1, Teloganodes/fg1, Tricoryptera).

Unique apomorphy; in Ephemerella/fg2, Caenotergaliae and Potamanthus/fg1 transverse row of setae also can be developed on dorsal side of fore femur [see Ephemerella/fg1 (12)], but in this case setae on outer margin of fore femur are arranged in the same manner as on middle and hind femora (Kluge 2004: Fig.89:H). In Caenotergaliae-Madecocercus (which was initially wrongly attributed to the family Tricorythidae), femora bear wart-like tubercles, which arrangement somewhat resembles that of setae in Pantricorythi; these tubercles were taken for "spinelike setae" (McCafferty & Wang 1995: p.3 and Fig.1).

(2) Imaginal gonostyli, being quite variable, have some features in common. 1st segment is usually (but not always) elongate: its length usually exceeds width, sometimes being subequal to length of 2nd segment (while in Ephemerella/fg2 its length usually is less than width). 1st and 2nd segments (immobile connected in majority of mayflies) can be movably articulated; 2nd segment either retains initial caudal direction, or is inclined laterally (in Machadorythus, Leptohyphes/fg2, Allenhyphes, Tricorythopsis). 3rd segment [the last see Ephemerella/fg1 (8)] is short, its length usually is subequal to width (the same in some Ephemerella/fg2); sometimes 3rd segment is lost (see Index of characters [2.3.12]).

Plesiomorphies of Pantricorythi. Unlike Ephemerella/fg2, bilobed tergalii [see Ephemerella/fg1 (7)] are present beginning from abdominal segment II (tergalii V, VI and VII can be present or lost see Table and Index of characters [1.3.21]). Costal and anal ribs [located at a distance from tergalial margins see Furcatergaliae (5)] can be more or less retained (Kluge 2004: Fig.95:FG, 96:EH, 101:A, 103:C) (but sometimes they are indistinct or lost, especially on posteriormost tergalii).

Size. Fore wing length 216 mm.

Distribution. Afrotropical, Oriental, Australian, Neotropical and Nearctic Regions.


The taxon Pantricorythi (or Tricorythus/fg1) is divided into:

1. Vietnamella

2. Austremerella

3. Melanemerella/f1=Teloganodes/g1

4. Tricoryptera (or Tricorythus/fg2)

4.1. Afrotricorythi, or Tricorythus/fg3

4.1.1. Tricorygnatha, or Tricorythus/fg4

4.1.2. Ephemerythus

4.1.3. Dicercomyzon

4.1.4. Machadorythus

4.2. Leptohyphes/fg1

4.2.1. Leptohyphes/fg2

4.2.2. Allenhyphes

4.2.3. Tricorythodes

4.2.4. Tricorythopsis

4.2.5. Haplohyphes

Some other taxa are listed here as Leptohyphes/fg1 INCERTAE SEDIS