NOMINA CIRCUMSCRIBENTIA INSECTORUM

CONTENTS

REFERENCES

                                                   

Typified names:

Panzygothoraca Kluge 2004

NOMEN: Panzygothoraca Kluge 2004: 352 [N.J. Kluge. Larval leg structure of Nannochorista and characteristics of Mecoptera. - Russian Entomological Journal, (2003) 2004, 12 (4): 349-354]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Kluge 2004): Hymenoptera + Amphiesmenoptera + Diptera + Aphaniptera + Mecoptera

SENIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYM: 

= Mecopteriformia Ax 1999

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Papilio/fg (incl. Cinyps, Panorpa, Oestrus, Pulex) [f:1781; g:1758(gen.203)]

TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: 

MODERN STATUS: belongs to a widely accepted, probably holophyletic, taxon.
Systematic position and classification of Panzygothoraca:

Metabola
 
Elytrophora
 
Neuropteroidea
  Panzygothoraca
   
Hymenoptera
   
Enteracantha
   
Diptera
   
Amphiesmenoptera
     
Trichoptera
     
Lepidoptera

Kluge 2010 BioNomina Dual-Nom :

In an earlier paper (Kluge 2004b) I proposed the new name Panzygothoraca for a widely accepted taxon consisting of Hymenoptera, Mecaptera, Aphaniptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, and Lepidoptera. This group had been called “Mecopteroidea”, “Mecopteria” or “Hymenopterida”, with no clear circumscription or authorship specified for any of the three names. The oldest publications where these names are found suggest that their original circumscriptions do not fit Panzygothoraca.

The authorship of the name Mecopteroidea is unknown. The name emerged as a replacement for the Handlirsch’s (1903) name Panorpoidea. The name Panorpoidea appears typified and derived by adding the suffix and ending ‘-oidea’ to the generic name Panorpa. Under the Code, this name may only apply to a superfamily whose oldest family-group name is formed from Panorpa (ICZN 29.2), so Handlirsch’s name Panorpoidea was replaced with Mecopteroidea. Handlirsch’s Panorpoidea included Mecaptera, Aphaniptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Lepidoptera, but did not include Hymenoptera. The name Mecopteroidea is often used the same way. Rohdendorf (1977) attributed the name Mecopteroidea to Martynov 1938. However, Martynov’s last paper has not been published in full, while the published part (Martynov 1938) makes no mention of Mecopteroidea. Earlier Crampton (1924: 36, footnote) used the English form of this name as ‘mecopteroid insects’. While the name Mecopteroidea is indeed often applied to Handlirsch’s Panorpoidea, the actual usage may vary (see Table) and refer, e.g., to a taxon consisting of Hymenoptera, Mecaptera, Aphaniptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, and Lepidoptera (Bey-Bienko 1964); this meaning is probably inconsistent with the original concept of Mecopteroidea, so the name should not be used. 

The name Mecopteroidea: 

usage examples




































































Crampton 1924

"mecopoteroid orders"

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Chen 1946

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Grasse 1949, Hennig 1969

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Rohdendorf 1962

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Bey-Bienko 1962

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Bey-Bienko 1964

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The name “Mecopteria” was used by Mickoleit (1969) for the taxon consisting of Hymenoptera, Mecaptera, Aphaniptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, and Lepidoptera. This name is an emendation of Mecopteroidea. Originally, the name Mecopteria Hennig 1953 was used for a taxon that did not include Hymenoptera and Aphaniptera. Later this name was variously used for other taxa (see Table). 

The name Mecopteria: 
usage examples























































Hennig 1953 + + + +
Hennig 1962 + +
Mickoleit 1969 + + + + + +
Kristensen 1995 + + + + +

The name “Hymenopterida” was used by Weaver (1984) for the taxon consisting of Hymenoptera, Mecaptera, Aphaniptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, and Lepidoptera. Earlier the name Hymenopterida Bodreaux 1979 was introduced as an emendation of Hymenopteroidea Handlirsch 1903 and was applied for a subcohort consisting of Hymenoptera only (Boudreaux 1979). Both Hymenopteroidea and Hymenopterida are thus junior circumscriptional synonyms of Hymenoptera Linnaeus 1758.

The name Panzygothoraca is derived from Zygothoraca Schoch 1884, a name proposed to include Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera only, with Trichoptera and Mecaptera left among Neuroptera. Circumscriptional synonyms of Zygothoraca Schoch 1884 are Neoptera Woodworth 1906 (non Martynov 1923) and Homoptera Burmeister 1835 (non Latreille 1810). The Zygothoraca was explicitly established as a polyphyletic taxon: Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera were assumed to have originated independently from the ancestral (i.e. paraphyletic) taxon “Neuroptera” (Schoch 1884, Woodworth 1906). The word ‘Zygothoraca’ refers to the fused adult thoracic segments (not all the members share this feature, as there is no fusion in some primitive hymenopterans and lepidopterans). The taxon Panzygothoraca is probably holophyletic (Kluge 2004) and consists of the original membership of Zygothoraca (i.e. Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera) plus their allies Mecaptera, Aphaniptera, and Trichoptera.

The name Panzygothoraca was assumed to be the only circumscriptional name for the taxon consisting of Hymenoptera, Mecaptera, Aphaniptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, and Lepidoptera (Kluge 2004, 2010). However, a senior circumscriptional name Mecopteriformia was published in a German text-book on general zoology (Ax 1999).


REFERENCES:

Bey-Bienko G.Ya. 1962. [On the general classification of insects.] // [Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie] (Revue d’Entomologie de l’URSS), 41 (1), 6–21 (in Russian).

Bey-Bienko G.Ya., ed. 1964. [Opredelitel’ nasekomyh evropeyskoy chasti SSSP (Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR)] Vol. I. Keys to USSR fauna published by Zoological Institute of Acad. Sci USSR, 84, 1–935.

Boudreaux H.B. 1979. Arthropod phylogeny with special reference to insects. John Willey & sons, New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, 1–320.

Burmeister H. 1832–1855. Handbuch der Entomologie. Bd. 1–5: Bd.1. Allgemeine Entomologie (1832); Bd.2. Besondere Entomologie: Abt.1. (1835); Abt.2.: Hf.1. (1838); Hf.2. (1839); Bd.3 (1842), Bd. 4: Abt. 1 (1844); Abt. 2 (1855); Bd. 5 (1847).

Chen S.H. 1946. Evolution of the insect larva. // Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 97, 381–404.

Crampton G.C. 1924. The phylogeny and classification of the insects. // Journal of Entomology and Zoology, 16, 33–47.

Grassé P.-P. 1949. Traité de Zoologie. T.IX, X. Insectes. Masson et Cie Ed., Paris.

Handlirsch A. 1903. Zur Phylogenie der Hexapoden. // Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse, 112, Abt.1, 716–738.

Hennig W. 1953. Kritische Bemerkungen zum phylogenetischen System der Insecten. // Beiträge zur Entomologie, Sonderheft 3, 1–85.

Hennig W. 1969. Die Stammesgeschichte der Insecten. Krammer, Frankfurt am Main, Senkenberg-Buch, 49, 1–436.

Kluge N.J. 2004b. Larval leg structure of Nannochorista and characteristics of Mecoptera. // Russian Entomological Journal, (2003), 12 (4), 349–354.

Kristensen N.P. 1995. Forty years’ insect phylogenetic systematics. // Zoologische Beitrage, (N.F.), 36 (1), 83–124.

Martynov A.V. 1938. [Etudes sur l’histoire géologique et de phylogénie des ordres des Insectes (Pterygota) I. Palaeoptera et Neoptera-Polyneoptera.] // [Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR (Travaux Inst. Paleont., Acad. Sci. USSR)], 7 (4), 1–449 (in Russian).

Mickoleit G. 1969. Vergleichend-anatomische Untersuchungen an der pterotorakalen Pleurotergalmuskulatur der Neuropteria und Mecopteria (Insecta, Holometabola). // Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere, 64 (2), 151–178.

Rohdendorf B.B. (ed.) 1962. [Osnovy paleontologii (Basics of paleontology)], Vol. 9, Publ. Acad. Sci. USSR, 1–560 (in Russian).

Rohdendorf B.B. 1977. [The rationalization of names of higher taxa in zoology.] // [Paleontol. Zhurnal], No.2, 14–22 (in Russian).
English translation: Paleontological Journal, l977 (11), 149–155.

Schoch G. 1884. Über die Gruppierung der Insecten-Ordungen. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen entomologischen Gesellschaft, 7, 34.

Weaver J.S. III 1984. The evolution and classification of Trichoptera, part I: The groundplan of Trichoptera. // In: IV Int. symp. on Trichoptera. // eries Entomologica, vol.30, 413–419.

Woodworth C.W. 1906. The wingveins of insects. // University of California Publications in Entomology, 1 (1), 1–152.