Typified names:

Amphiesmenoptera Kiriakoff 1948

NOMEN: Amphiesmenoptera Kiriakoff 1948 [S.G. Kiriakoff . A classification of the Lepidoptera and related groups with some remarks on taxonomy. Biologisch Jaarboek, Antwerp., 1948, 15: 118-143]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Kiriakoff 1948): Zeugloptera + Trichoptera + "Lepidoptera" (= Glossolepidoptera)


= Amphiesmenopterida Weaver 1984

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Papilio/fg (incl. Phryganea)


MODERN STATUS:  the valid, the oldest name of a generally accepted, holophyletic taxon.
Classifications of Amphiesmenoptera:


Kluge 2010 BioNomina Dual-Nom :

In my earlier papers (Kluge 2004b, 2005a) I wrongly referred to the taxon Lepidoptera + Trichoptera as “Sorbentia Haeckel 1896” because I was believed that Haeckel’s (1896) usage was the original one. It turns out, however, that the name goes back to Haeckel’s 1889 paper where Sorbentia consisted of nothing but Lepidoptera, while the caddisflies (under the generic name Phryganea within Neuroptera) were treated separately among Mordentia. Thus, the name Sorbentia Haeckel 1889 is a junior circumscriptional synonym of Lepidoptera Linnaeus 1758 (Mielke & Casagrande 2006). The oldest circumscriptional name for Lepidoptera + Trichoptera is not Sorbentia, but Amphiesmenoptera Kiriakoff 1948.


Haeckel E. 1889. Natürliche Schöpfungs-Geschichte. Gemeinverständliche wissenschaftliche Vorträge über die Entwickelung-Lehre im Allgemainen und diejenige von Darwin, Goethe und Lamarck im Besonderen. Berlin, Druck und Verlag von Georg Reimer: 1-832.

Haeckel E. 1896. Systematische Phylogenie. Zweiter Theil: Systematische Phylogenie der wirbellosen Thiere (Invertebrata). Berlin, Verlag von Georg Reimer, 1–720.

Kiriakoff S.G. 1948. A classification of the Lepidoptera and related groups with some remarks on taxonomy. // Biologisch Jaarboek. Antwerpen, 15, 118–143.

Kluge N.J. 2004b. Larval leg structure of Nannochorista and characteristics of Mecoptera. // Russian Entomological Journal, (2003), 12 (4), 349–354.

Kluge N.J. 2005a. Larval/pupal leg transformation and a new diagnosis for the taxon Metabola Burmeister, 1832 = Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1923. // Russian Entomological Journal, (2004) 13(4), 189–229.

Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. T.I. [A photographic facsimile of the first volume of the tenth edition. London, British Museum of Natural History, 1956, 1–824].

Mielke O.H.H. & Casagrande M.M. 2006. Catálogo bibliográfico dos taxa superiores de ordem Lepidoptera. // Revista Brasiliera de Zoologia, 23 (1), 1-41.