principles of systematics and nomenclature general system and phylogeny of insects systematics of Ephemeroptera

last update 4.IX.2005

 RUSSIAN 

 

about the book by


N. Kluge
"Cladoendesis of Insects"


second edition

IN PREPARING: third edition


The second edition of the Part I has been recently published in Russian as 
"Sovremennaya Sistematika Nasekomyh ..."
[Modern Systematics of Insects. Part I. Principles of Systematics of Living Organisms and General System of Insects, with Classification of Primary Wingless and Paleopterous Insects] - S.-Petersburg, Lan', 2000, 333 pp.; 
(c) N.Ju. Kluge, 2000; (c) "Lan'", 2000.


Address of the author - see Nikita Julievich Kluge    =   Íèêèòà Þëèåâè÷ Êëþãå

 

In this unique manual, where numerous new data obtained by the author are used, the systematic position and general classification of insects and myriapods are reviewed, with the emphasis on taxonomy of primitively wingless insects and palaeopterans. All evidence–based hypotheses on higher taxa relationships are considered. Various taxonomic approaches are discussed, and alternative classifications provided based on a range of phylogenetic hypotheses and taxonomic approaches.

Chapter I provides an analysis of general principles of phylogenetic reconstruction and various taxonomic approaches, and explains principles of zoological nomenclature. Principles of hierarchy-based and circumscription-based nomenclatures are explained along with the rank-based nomenclature of lower taxa regulated by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. In Chapter II spatial and temporal patterns of insect distribution are discussed. In Chapters III-VI the classification of individual taxa is discussed and a combination of two non-rank-based nomenclatures is applied, viz. hierarchical ICZN–based nomenclature and circumscription-based nomenclature; all alternative opinions are considered

 


Contents of the 2nd edition:

 

Foreword
Chapter I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS
I.1 Reconstructing phylogeny
I.1.1 Lingering misconceptions
I.1.1.1 Is embryological method reliable?
I.1.1.2 Applicability of paleontological method
I.1.1.3 Structure complication in phylogenesis
I.1.1.4 Oligomerization of homologous organs
I.1.1.5 Lack of specialization in ancestral forms
I.1.1.6 Evolutionary scenario
I.1.2 Cladistic analysis
I.1.2.1 Terms "apomorphy" and "plesiomorphy"
I.1.2.2 Apomorphy-based phylogenetic analysis
I.1.2.3 Identifying character polarity
I.1.2.4 Interdependency of phylogenetic theory and character definition
I.1.2.5 Independently evolving homologous characters
I.1.2.6 Field of application of cladistic analysis
I.1.3 Why do numerical methods fail
I.1.3.1 Inavailability of parsimony principle
I.1.3.2 Fundamental scortcomming of numerical taxonomy
I.2 Principles of classification
I.2.1 Mono-, poly-, para-, and holophyly
I.2.1.1 Background
I.2.1.2 Definitions
I.2.1.3 Holo-, para- and polyphyly: explanation of terms
I.2.2 Taxonomic schools
I.2.2.1 Cladism, of phylogenetic systematics
I.2.2.2 Traditionalism, or evolutionary systematics
I.2.2.3 Gradism
I.2.3 Real systematics
I.2.3.1 Benefit and damage from paraphyletic (ancestral) taxon
I.2.3.2 Plesiomorphons
I.2.3.2 3 Aspiration of classification for the cladistic ideal
I.2.3.3 4 Reasons of disagreements between cladists and traditionalists
I.2.4 Relative and absolute ranks of taxa
I.2.4.1 Strict hierarchy of classification
I.2.4.2 Absolute ranks
I.2.4.3 Inequality of absolute ranks
I.2.4.4 Problem of genus
I.3 Principles of nomenclature of taxa
I.3.1 General principles of nomenclatures of biological taxa
I.3.1.1 Availability and validity of names
I.3.1.2 Principle of priority
I.3.2 Different types of nomenclatures and names
I.3.3 Rank-based (ranking) nomenclatures
I.3.3.1 Names regulated by the International Code of Zoological Nomencature (ICZN)
I.3.3.2 Rank-based names of higher taxa
I.3.4 Hierarchy-based (hierarchical) nomenclature
I.3.5 Circumscription-based (circumscriptional) nomenclature
I.3.5.1 Circumscription-related terms
I.3.5.2 Criteria of availability for circumscription-based names
I.3.5.3 Circumscription match
I.3.5.4 Validity of circumscription-based names
I.3.6 Name-related misconceptions
I.3.6.1 Customary interpretation of non-typified names
I.3.6.2 Polyphyletic Hexapoda: How a myth was born
I.3.7 Combining circumscription-based and hierarchy-based nomenclature
I.3.7.1 Usage of different nomenclatures
I.3.7.2 Format of species name in non-rank-based nomenclature
I.3.7.3 Sliding binomina and polynomina
I.3.7.4 The layout of a taxonomic paper
I.3.8 Catalogues of zoological names
Chapter II. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF INSECTS
II.1 Geographical distribution
II.2 Trends of paleontological record
Chapter III. GENERAL SYSTEM OF ARTHROPODS
Part III.A. Systematic position of arthropods
Part III.B. Classification of arthropods
Chapter IV. SYSTEMATICS OF MYRIAPODA
Chapter V. SYSTEMATICS OF HEXAPODA: GENERAL CLASSIFICATION AND PRIMARILY WINGLESS INSECTS 
Chapter VI. SYSTEMATICS OF PTERYGOTA: GENERAL CLASSIFICATION AND PALAEOPTEROUS INSECTS
Index of characters of taxa mentioned in Chapters III-VI
References
Annoted alphabetic index of Russian names and terms
Annoted alphabetic index of Latin terms
Annoted alphabetic index of Latin names of taxa
Index of page numbers of tables and figures


A WORK IN PROGRESS: 

third edition titled "Cladoendesis of Insects"

        
Chapter I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CLADOENDESIS
I.1. What is cladoendesis

I.2. Concepts and terms connected with organic evolution

I.3. Biological species

I.4. Reconstructing phylogeny

I.5. Principles of classification of supra-species taxa

I.6. Principles of nomenclature of taxa

    

Chapter II. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF INSECTS

I.1. Geographical distribution

II.2. Trends of paleontological records

  

Chapter III. Systematic position of arthropods

III-1 Somobialia Rafinesque 1815

III-1.1 Eucaryota Chatton 1925

III-1.1.1 Metazoa Haeckel 1874 (or Araneus/fg1)

III-1.1.1.1 Monostomata Huxley1875 (or Araneus/fg2)

III-1.1.1.1.1 Haemataria Haeckel 1874 (or Araneus/fg3)

III-1.1.1.1.1.1 Peritoneata taxon nov. (or Araneus/fg4)

III-1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Metameria Valentine 1973 (or Araneus/fg5)

  

Chapter IV. General systen of arthropods

IV-1 Gnathopoda Lankester 1877 (or Araneus/fg6)

IV-1.1 Onychophora Grube 1853 (or Peripatus/fg1)

IV-1.2 Acanthotheca Diesign 1835 (or Linguatula/fg1)

IV-1.3 Tardigrada Spallanzani 1776 (or Macrobiotus/fg1)

IV-1.4 Euarthropoda Lankester 1904 (or Araneus/fg7)

IV-1.4.1 †Plesiomorphon Trilobitomorpha Størmer 1944 (or Calymene/fg1)

IV-1.4.2 Chelicerophora Dubinin 1959 (or Araneus/fg8)

IV-1.4.2.1 Pantopoda Gerstaecker 1863 (or Pycnogonum/fg1)

IV-1.4.2.2 Chelicerata Heymons 1901 (or Araneus/fg9)

IV-1.4.3 Mandibulata Snodgrass 1935 (or Pediculus/f1=Scarabaeus/g1)

IV-1.4.3.1 Eucrustacea Kingsley 1894 (or Cancer/fg1)

IV-1.4.3.1.1 Cephalocarida Sanders 1955 (or Hutchinsoniella/fg1)

IV-1.4.3.1.2 Remipedia Yager 1981 (or Speleonectes/fg1)

IV-1.4.3.1.3 Malacostracia Pearce 1936 (or Cancer/fg2)

IV-1.4.3.1.4 Gnathostraca Dahl 1956 (or Daphnia/f1=Branchipus/g1)

IV-1.4.3.1.5 Copepodoidea Beklemishev 1953 (or Balanus/f1=Lernaea/g1)

IV-1.4.3.1.6 Ostrapoda Straus 1821 (or Cypris/fg1)

IV-1.4.3.1.7 †Extinct groups of Eucrustacea

IV-1.4.3.2 Atelocerata Heymons 1901 (or Pediculus/f1=Scarabaeus/g2)

   

Chapter V. SYSTEMATICS OF MYRIAPODA

V-1 Myriapoda Latreille 1802 (or Julus/f1=Scolopendra/g1)

V-1.1 Progoneata Pocock 1893 s.l. (or Julus/f2=g1)

V-1.1.1 Symphyla Ryder 1880 (or Scolopendrella/fg1)

V-1.1.2 Collifera Boudreaux 1979 (or Julus/f3=g2)

V-1.1.2.1 Diplopoda Blainville in Gervais 1844 (or Julus/f4=g3)

V-1.1.2.2 Pauropoda Lubbock 1868 (or Pauropus/fg1)

V-1.1.2.2.1 Plesiomorphon Hexamerocerata Remy 1953 (or Millotauropus/fg1)

V-1.1.2.2.2 Tetramerocerata Remy 1953 (or Pauropus/fg2)

V-1.2 Chilopoda Latreille 1817 (or Scolopendra/f1=g2)

V-1.2.1 Inaequipedes Latreille 1825 (or Scutigera/fg1)

V-1.2.2 Aequipedes Latreille 1825 (or Scolopendra/f2=g3)

   

Chapter VI. SYSTEMATICS OF HEXAPODA: GENERAL CLASSIFICATION AND WINGLESS INSECTS

VI-1 Hexapoda Blainville 1816 (or Pediculus/f3=Scarabaeus/g3)

VI-1.1 Entognatha Stummer-Traunfels 1891 (or Podura/fg1)

VI-1.1.1 Diplura Borner 1904 (or Iapyx/f1=Campodea/g1)

VI-1.1.1.1 Rhabdura Cook 1896 s.str. (or Campodea/f1=g2)

VI-1.1.1.2 Prodicellura Crampton 1916 (or Projapyx/fg1)

VI-1.1.1.3 Dicellurata Pages 1959 (or Iapyx/f2=g1)

VI-1.1.2 Ellipura Borner 1910 (or Podura/fg2)

VI-1.1.2.1 Collembola Lubbock 1870 (or Podura/fg3)

VI-1.1.2.2 Protura Silvestri 1907 (or Acerentomon/fg1)

VI-1.2 Amyocerata Remington 1955 (or Pediculus/f1=Scarabaeus/g4)

VI-1.2.1 Triplura Ewing 1942 (or Lepisma/fg1)

VI-1.2.1.1 Zygentoma Borner 1904 (or Lepisma/fg2)

VI-1.2.1.2 Microcoryphia Verhoeff 1904 (or Machilis/fg1)

VI-1.2.1.3 †Extinct and erroneously described Triplura

  

Chapter VII. SYSTEMATICS PTERYGOTA: GENERAL CLASSIFICATION AND PALAEOPTEROUS INSECTS

VII-1 Pterygota Gegenbaur 1878 (or Pediculus/f5=Scarabaeus/g5)

VII-1.1 Ephemeroptera Hyatt et Arms 1891 (or Ephemera/fg1-3)

VII-1.1.A. General characteristics of Ephemeroptera

VII-1.1.B. Classification of Ephemeroptera with consideration for extinct groups

VII-1.1.B-1 Panephemeroptera Crampton 1928 , or Ephemeroptera s.1 (or Ephemera/fg1)

VII-1.1.B-1.1 †Protephemeroidea and other Carboniferous groups placed in Panephemeroptera

VII-1.1.B-1.2 Euephemeroptera Kluge 2000 , or Ephemeroptera s.2. (or Ephemera/fg2)

VII-1.1.B-1.2.1 †Plesiomorphon Permoplectoptera Tillyard 1932 (or Protereisma/f1=Phtharthus/g1)

VII-1.1.B-1.2.2 Euplectoptera Tillyard 1932 , or Ephemeroptera s.3 (or Ephemera/fg3)

VII-1.2 Metapterygota Borner 1909 (or Pediculus/f1=Scarabaeus/g6)

VII-1.2.1 Odonata Fabricius 1793 (or Libellula/fg1-2)

VII-1.2.1.A. General characteristics of Odonata

VII-1.2.1.B. Classification of Odonata with consideration for extinct groups

VII-1.2.1.B-1 Odonatoptera Lameere 1900 , or Odonata s.l. (or Libellula/fg1)

VII-1.2.1.B-1.1 †Palaeozoic-Triassic odonates

VII-1.2.1.B-1.2 Neodonata Martynov 1938 , or Odonata s.str. (or Libellula/fg2)

VII-1.2.1.B-1.2.1 Zygoptera Selys 1854 (or Calepteryx/f1=Lestes/g1)

VII-1.2.1.B-1.2.2 Anisopteroides Lameere 1935 (or Libellula/fg3)

VII-1.2.1.B-1.2.2.1 Anisoptera Selys 1854 (or Libellula/fg4)

VII-1.2.1.B-1.2.2.2 Epiophlebioptera Lohmann 1996 (or Epiophlebia)

VII-1.2.1.B-1.2.2.3 † Extinct groups attributed to Anisopteroides

VII-1.2.2 Neoptera (see Chapter VII)

VII-1.3 †Protorrhynchota Rohdendorf 1968 (or Dictyoneura/fg1)

  

Chapter VIII. SYSTEMATICS OF NOPTERA: GENERAL CLASSIFICATION AND LOWER GROUPS

VIII-1 Neoptera Martynov 1923 (or Pediculus/f7=Scarabaeus/g7)

VIII-1.1 Idioprothoraca Kluge 2012 (or Embia/fg1)

VIII-1.1.1 Embioptera Lameere 1900 (or Embia/fg2)

VIII-1.1.2 Notoptera Crampton 1915 (or Grylloblatta/fg1)

VIII-1.2 Rhipineoptera Kluge 2012 (or Gryllus/f1=Forficula/g1)

VIII-1.2.1 Plecoptera Burmeister 1839 (or Perla/fg1)

VIII-1.2.2 Tegminoptera Kluge 2013 (or Gryllus/f2=Forficula/g2)

VIII-1.2.2.1 Pandictyoptera Crampton 1917 (or Mantis/f1-2=Blatta/g1-2)

VIII-1.2.2.1.A. General characteristics of Pandictyoptera

VIII-1.2.2.1.B. Classification of Pandictyoptera with consideration for extinct groups

VIII-1.2.2.1.B-1 Holopandictyoptera Kluge 2010 , or Pandictyoptera s.l. (or Mantis/f1=Blatta/g1)

VIII-1.2.2.1.B-1.1 †Plesiomorphon Palaeoblattariae Scudder 1879 (or Mylacris/fg1)

VIII-1.2.2.1.B-1.2 Cryptovipositoria Kluge 2010 , or Pandictyoptera s.str. (or Mantis/f2=Blatta/g2)

VIII-1.2.2.1.B-1.2.1 Raptoriae Latreille 1802 (or Mantis/f3=g1)

VIII-1.2.2.1.B-1.2.2 Oothecophora Kluge 2010 (or Termes/f1=Blatta/g3)

VIII-1.2.2.1.B-1.2.2.1 Plesiomorphon Neoblattariae Scudder 1895 (or Blatta/f1=g4)

VIII-1.2.2.1.B-1.2.2.2 Isoptera Brulle 1832 (or Termes/f2=g1)

VIII-1.2.2.2 Saltatoria Latreille 1817 (or Gryllus/f3=g1)

VIII-1.2.2.2.1 †Plesiomorpon Oedischia/fg1

VIII-1.2.2.2.2 Dolichocera Bey-Bienko 1964 (or Gryllus/f4=g2)

VIII-1.2.2.2.3 Caelifera Ander 1936 (or Acrida/fg1)

VIII-1.2.2.3 Spectra Latreille 1802 (or Phasma/fg1)

VIII-1.2.2.4 Dermatoptera Burmeister 1838 (or Forficula/f1=g2 - f4=g5)

VIII-1.2.2.4.A. General characteristics of Dermatoptera

VIII-1.2.2.4.B. Classification of Dermatoptera with consideration for extinct groups

VIII-1.2.2.4.B-1 Dermapteroidea Jeannel 1949 , or Dermatoptera s.1 (or Forficula/f1=g2)

VIII-1.2.2.4.B-1.1 †Plesiomorphon Protelytroptera Tillyard 1931 (or Protelytron/fg1)

VIII-1.2.2.4.B-1.2 Brachydermaptera Kluge 2003 , or Dermatoptera s.2. (or Forficula/f2=g3)

VIII-1.2.2.4.B-1.2.1 †Plesiomorphon Archidermaptera Bey-Bienko 1936 (or Protodiplatys/fg1)

VIII-1.2.2.4.B-1.2.2 Neodermaptera Engel 2003 , or Dermatoptera s.3 (or Forficula/f3=g4)

VIII-1.2.2.4.B-1.2.2.1 Holodermaptera Verhoeff 1904 , or Dermatoptera s.4 (or Forficula/f4=g5)

VIII-1.2.2.4.B-1.2.2.2 Diploglossata Saussure 1879 (or Hemimerus/fg1)

VIII-1.3 Eumetabola (or Pediculus/f8=Scarabaeus/g8)

     

Chapter IX. SYSTEMATICS OF PARAMETABOLA

IX-1 Parametabola Crampton 1938 (or Pediculus/f9=Cicada/g1)

IX-1.1 Zoraptera Silvestri 1913 (or Zorotypus/fg1)

IX-1.2 Acercaria Borner 1904 (or Pediculus/f10=Cicada/g2)

IX-1.2.1 Panpsocoptera Crampton 1938 (or Pediculus/g11=g1)

IX-1.2.1.1 plesiomorphon Parapsocida Tillyard 1926 (or Atropos/f1=Trogium/g1)

IX-1.2.1.2 Eupsocida Tillyard 1926 (or Psocus/fg1)

IX-1.2.1.3 Parasita Latreille 1796 (or Pediculus/f12=g2)

IX-1.2.1.3.1 Mallophaga Nitzsch 1818 (or Philopterus/f1=Ricinus/g1)

IX-1.2.1.3.1.1 Amblycera Kellogg 1896 (or Ricinus/f1=g2)

IX-1.2.1.3.1.2 Ischnocera Kellogg 1896 (or Philopterus/f2=g1)

IX-1.2.1.3.2 Siphunculata Latreille 1825 (or Pediculus/f2=g3)

IX-1.2.1.3.3 Rhyncophthirina Ferris 1931 (or Haematomyzus)

IX-1.2.2 Condylognatha Borner 1904 (or Cimex/f1=Cicada/g3)

IX-1.2.2.1 Thysanoptera Haliday 1836 (or Thrips/fg1-2)

IX-1.2.2.1.A General characteristics of Thysanoptera

IX-1.2.2.1.B Classification of Thysanoptera with consideration for extinct groups

IX-1.2.2.1.B-1 Panphysapoda, taxon nov., or Thysanoptera s.l. (or Thrips/fg1)

IX-1.2.2.1.B-1.1 †Moundthrips/f1=Jantardachus/g1

IX-1.2.2.1.B-1.2 Neothysanoptera, taxon nov., or Thysanoptera s.str. (or Thrips/fg2)

IX-1.2.2.2 Arthroidignatha Spinola 1850 (or Cimex/f2=Cicada/g4)

IX-1.2.2.2.1 Plantisuga Dumeril 1805 (or Aphis/fg1)

IX-1.2.2.2.1.1 Aphidococca Kluge 2011 (or Aphis/fg2)

IX-1.2.2.2.1.1.1 Gynaptera Laporte 1834 (or Aphis/fg3)

IX-1.2.2.2.1.1.2 Gallinsecta De Geer 1776 (or Coccus/fg1)

IX-1.2.2.2.1.2 Psyllaleyroda Kluge 2011 (or Psylla/fg1)

IX-1.2.2.2.1.2.1 Saltipedes Amyot et Serville 1843 (or Psylla/fg2)

IX-1.2.2.2.1.2.2 Scytinelytra Amyot et Serville 1843 (or Aleyrodes/fg1)

IX-1.2.2.2.2 Hemelytrata Fallen 1829 (or Cimex/f3=Cicada/g5)

IX-1.2.2.2.2.1 Auchenorrhyncha Dumeril 1805 (or Cicada/f1=g6)

IX-1.2.2.2.2.1.1 Subtericornes Amyott et Serville 1843 (or Fulgora/fg1)

IX-1.2.2.2.2.1.2 Euhomoptera Crampton 1916 (or Cicada/f2=g7)

IX-1.2.2.2.2.2 Heteropteroidea Schlee 1969 (or Cimex/f4=Notonecta/g1)

IX-1.2.2.2.2.2.1 Coleorrhyncha Myers et China 1929 (or Peloridium/fg1)

IX-1.2.2.2.2.2.2 Heteroptera Latreille 1810 (or Cimex/f5=Notonecta/g2)

      

Chapter X. SYSTEMATICS OF METABOLA

X-1 Metabola Burmeister 1832 (or Scarabaeus/f1=g9)

X-1.1 Elytrophora Packard 1883 (or Scarabaeus/f2=g10)

X-1.1.1 Coleoptera De Geer 1774 (or Scarabaeus/f3=g11)

X-1.1.2 Strepsiptera Kirby 1813 (or Stylops/f1=Xenos/g1)

X-1.2 Neuropteroidea Handlirsch 1903 (or Myrmeleon/f1=Hemerobius/g1)

X-1.2.1 Birostrata Kluge 2005 (or Myrmeleon/f2=Hemerobius/g2)

X-1.2.2 Rhaphidioptera Navas 1916 (or Raphidia/fg1)

X-1.2.3 Meganeuroptera Crampton 1916 (or Corydalus/f1=Chauliodes/g1)

X-1.2.3.1 Nothomegaloptera Engel 2004 (or Sialis/fg1)

X-1.2.3.2 Eumegaloptera Riek 1974 (or Corydalus/f2=Chauliodes/g2)

X-1.3 Panzygothoraca Kluge 2004 (or Papilio/fg1)

X-1.3.1 Hymenoptera Linnaeus 1758 (or Vespa/f1=Cynips/g1)

X-1.3.1.1 Archihymenoptera Grimaldi & Engel 2005 (or Xyela/fg1)

X-1.3.1.2 Neohymenoptera Grimaldi & Engel 2005 (or Vespa/f2=Cynips/g2)

X-1.3.2 Enteracantha Kluge 2010 (or Panorpa/fg1)

X-1.3.2.1 Scorpiomuscae Kluge 2013 (or Panorpa/fg2)

X-1.3.2.2 Nannomecoptera Hinton 1981 (or Nannochorista/fg1)

X-1.3.2.3 Metamecoptera Crampton 1930 (or Bittacus/fg1)

X-1.3.2.4 Calyptroptera Kluge 2013 (or Pulex/fg1)

X-1.3.2.4.1 Raphioptera MacLeay 1821 (or Boreus/fg1)

X-1.3.2.4.2 Aphaniptera Kirby 1813 (or Pulex/fg2)

X-1.3.3 Amphiersmenoptera Kiriakoff 1948 (or Papilio/fg2)

X-1.3.3.1 Trichoptera Kirby 1813 (or Phryganea/fg1)

X-1.3.3.2 Lepidoptera Linnaeus 1758 (or Papilio/fg3)

X-1.3.3.2.1 Plesiomorphon Protolepidoptera Packard 1895 (or Micropterix/fg1)

X-1.3.3.2.2 Glossolepidoptera Kluge 2005 (or Papilio/fg4)

X-1.3.3.2.2.1 Plesiomorphon Palaeolepidoptera Packard 1895 (or Eriocrania/fg1)

X-1.3.3.2.2.2 Neolepidoptera Packard 1895 (or Papilio/fg5)

X-1.3.4 Diptera Linnaeus 1758 (or Musca/f1=Oestrus/g1)

X-1.3.4.1 Plesiomorphon Nemocera Latreille 1817 (or Tipula/fg1)

X-1.3.4.2 Brachocera Macquart 1834 (or Musca/f2=Oestrus/g2)

X-1.3.4.2.1 Plesiomorphon Mesodiptera Crampton 1916 (or Bombylius/f1=Tabanus/g1)

X-1.3.4.2.2 Cyclorapha Brauer 1863 (or Musca/f3=Oestrus/g3)

   

INDEX OF CHARACTERS MENTIONED IN CHAPTERS III-X

 

References

Alphabetic index of Russian names and terms

Alphabetic index of Latin terms

Alphabetic index of Latin names of taxa

Index of page numbers of tables and figures

    

 to general index