Typified names:


Structure of the catalogue 

This catalogue includes all non-typified names of arthropod taxa, which we were able to find till the present moment. Many names existed in special literature, are not found by us, and we would be thankful to everybody who will help to find them.

In accordance to the most universal rules of zoological nomenclature, all non-typified names should be used as circumscriptional ones, in contrast to all typified names, which should be used as ranking or hierarchical ones. 

The main part of this catalogue contains two alphabetic lists:

The first list (with  yellow letters  in menu) is a list of non-typified names. In this list each non-typified (i.e. circumscriptional) name, besides its authorship, should be accompanied by its typified equivalent (written by  black on light gray background ) and by a short comment (written by  white on dark gray background ). Actually, for many non-typified names their typified equivalents are not written yet, and this will be done in future.

The second list (with  red letters  in menu) is a list of those typified names, which are already given in the list of circumscriptional names. All typified names are given in a non-ranking form, i.e. with original spelling of generic names and without rank-based ending (such as "-idae", "-inae", etc.). Some of them are given as hierarchical names, i.e. with a number after "f" or/and "g" Araneus/fg1, Araneus/fg2, Araneus/fgA1, Araneus/fgAC1, etc. Some others are given without certain number, with tilde (~) instead of it Araneus/fg~. Typified names of those taxa which can not be accepted in modern classifications, are given in square brackets, without number or tilde [Araneus/fg]. In the alphabetic list all typified names based on the same generic name are given together (with a common authorship indicated in the left column by  black on gray background ), so they can be easily found, independently if they are accompanied with number, tilde, or square brackets, and independently if the reader agrees or not with our opinion concerning status of the taxon.

These two alphabetic lists allow to find circumscriptional names, circumscriptional synonyms and names of similar taxa. If you need to find a circumscriptional name for a certain taxon, you have to determine its oldest family-group or genus-group name and find it in the list of typified names.

Besides the two alphabetic lists, the catalogue should include, as separate files, detailed characteristic of each circumscriptional name and each classification where new name(s) were introduced; it is important, because the short comment in the list of circumscriptional names, together with the typified name, gives only an approximate idea about original circumscription of the circumscriptional name. Links to classifications are given as "" in References and by underlining in the lists of circumscriptional and typified names; links to characteristic of circumscriptional names are given as underlining in the same lists. At this moment only a few name characteristics and a few classifications are prepared. 

Besides this, some (but far not not all!) names are included into Tables, which help to find the necessary circumscriptional name according to its original circumscription.

Priority of typified names

Among zoological genus-group names, the oldest name is Araneus, which is arbitrarily regarded to be published in Clerck 1757 (ICZN Direction 104. 1959, and Article 3.1 of the actual International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4th edition, 2000).

The next are generic names published in Linnaeus 1758 (ibid.).

For the taxa which include not only zoological, but also botanical objects (such as Zotica, Cellulata, Eucaryota, et al.), the year 1758 can not be a starting point of nomenclature, because in the botanical nomenclature starting point is 1753.

Among zoological family-group names, the oldest known names are typified ordinal names published in Laicharting 1781, who applied principle of typified nomenclature for Linnaean's insect orders. The next are typified names in Latreille 1802, who introduced families and some other categories between Linnaean orders and genera.

For the purpose of hierarchical and other non-ranking typified nomenclature, page and line priority are used: among the names published in the same paper, a name which comes first has priority upon a name which follows it.

Availability of some circumscriptional names

The special problem represent Latin names originally published in non-Latin spelling i.e. with French, German or other national endings. If such names are introduced in our days, they should be regarded as non-available. However, it is expedient to regard as available such names published in the past: many of them got wide usage, and it would be difficult to discover who was the first to latinize them.

At least Latin names originally published in French, German, English or Italian spelling before the middle of the 19th century, should be regarded as available with original authorship and date, but with subsequent correction of ending. This is due only to national spelling of Latin names, but not to their national translations: for example, publication of the names "Faux-Scorpions" and "Vastaroskorpionen" by De Geer (1782) does not provide availability of the Latin name "Pseudoscorpiones".

Somebody thinks that ending "-es" is present only in French spelling; actually many taxa names have true Latin ending "-es" (plural for masculine and feminine words of 3rd and 5th declensions).

Sometimes it is difficult to determine which ending is true Latin and which national, and difficult to decide which Latin ending should be used instead of the original national one. In such cases, subsequent Latin spelling used by the same author should be taken into account. In this catalogue, for some names, besides the date of original publication, is given the date of subsequent Latin spelling published by the same author.