NOMINA CIRCUMSCRIBENTIA INSECTORUM

CONTENTS

REFERENCES

                                                   

Typified names:

Triplura Ewing 1942

NOMEN: Triplura Ewing 1942 [H.E. Ewing. The origin and classification of the Apterygota. - Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington, 1942, 44: 75-98]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Ewing 1942): Microcoryphia (= Machilidae) + Zygentoma (= Lepismatidae) 

SENIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS:

= Ectotropha = Ectotrophi Grassi 1888

= Ectognatha Stummer-Traunfels 1891

= Euthysanura Schepotieff 1909

= Thysanuradelphia Crampton 1916

= Phanerognatha Krausse & Wolff 1919

=?Ectotrophica Tillyard 1926

=?Archimetabola Crampton 1928

= Thysanurida Pearce 1936

JUNIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS:

= Apterentoma Chen 1958

= Thysanurata Bey-Bienko 1962

= Zygoentomata Brusca & Brusca 1990

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Lepisma/fg (incl. Machilis) [f:1802; g:1758(gen.230)]
TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: Lepisma (sensu Linnaeus 1758), Lepismenae, Lepismenia, Lepismides, Lepismites, Lepismaedes, Lepismida, Lepismatida, Lepismatidae, Lepismatina, Lepismatona

MODERN STATUS: the valid (while not the oldest) name of a taxon which is most probably holophyletic (see Kluge 2000).
Systematic position of Triplura:

modern
phylogenetic 
classification:

other classifications:

 
Hexapoda
 
Entognatha
    Ellipura
   
Diplura
 
Amyocerata
    Triplura
   
Pterygota
Hexapoda
 
Apterygota
    Entognatha
      Ellipura
 
    Diplura
    Triplura
 
Pterygota
Hexapoda
  Apterygota
    Ellipura
   
Cinura
 
    Diplura
      Triplura
 
Pterygota
 

Classification of Triplura:

Triplura
 
Zygentoma
 
Microcoryphia

Kluge 2010 BioNomina Dual-Nom :

The familiar current name of the taxon consisting of three-tailed wingless insects is “Thysanura”. Initially, the names Thysanoura Latreille 1796 (as French “Thysanoures”), Thysanoura sensu Latreille 1802 (the first Latin spelling) and Thysanura Leach 1815 each referred to an order that consisted of all primarily wingless hexapods — i.e., to the taxon subsequently named Apterygota Lang 1888. Later, the springtails were placed into a separate order, Collembola Lubbock 1873, and the name “Thysanura” sensu Lubbock 1873 was applied to the order where Iapyx, Campodea, Nicoletia, Lepisma, Lepismena and Machilis were placed — i.e., to what was subsequently named Cinura Packard 1883. Then the two-tailed members were moved into an order of their own, Diplura Börner 1904, and the name “Thysanura” sensu Lameere 1895 and sensu Börner 1904 was applied to the order of three-tailed thysanurans, i.e., Archaeognatha + Zygentoma — the group subsequently named Triplura Ewing 1942. Sometimes the name “Thysanura” is applied even more narrowly, in lieu of either Zygentoma Börner 1904 or Microcoryphia Verhoeff 1904 (= Archaeognatha Börner 1904) (e.g., Börner 1910, 1920) (see Thysanura).

TABLE: Various meanings of the name Thysanura.
Names used in their original circumscription are in boldface. Estimated species numbers (right column) show that at every split the name Thysanura was consistently applied to the smaller taxon of the two.

Apterygota =

Thysanura Leach 1815 

Cinura =
Thysanura: Lubbock 1873

Triplura =
Thysanura: Borner 1904

Microcoryphia
Thysanura: Borner 1920

450

Zygentoma
Thysanura: Borner 1910

600


Diplura
 

1000


Collembola
 

4000

The prevalent usage associates the name Thysanura with order-rank taxa, misusing a non-typified name as rank-based (see Dual-Nom). The names whose original circumscription fits the taxon consisting of all the three-tailed wingless insects are Ectotropha Grassi 1888, Ectognatha Stummer-Traunfels 1891, Euthysanura Schepotieff 1909, Thysanuradelphia Crampton 1916, Phanerognatha Krausse & Wolff 1919, Triplura Ewing 1942, Apterentoma Chen 1958, Thysanurata Bey-Bienko 1962 and Zygoentomata Brusca & Brusca 1990. 

Among these, Triplura Ewing 1942, by far not the oldest one, would be the name of choice, because using any other name from the list would lead to confusion: the name Ectognatha is often applied to Amyocerata (see above); the names Ectotropha and Phanerognatha are semantically close to Ectognatha; the names Euthysanura, Thysanuradelphia and Thysanurata can be confused with other names derived from Thysanura (e.g., with Thysanuroidea, which Escherich 1914 used for Cinura).