NOMINA CIRCUMSCRIBENTIA INSECTORUM

CONTENTS

REFERENCES

                                                   

Typified names:

Plectoptera

CONTENTS: 

1) Plectoptera Packard 1886

2) Plectoptera auct.

3) Opinion

 1) Plectoptera Packard 1886

NOMEN: Plectoptera Packard 1886 [A.S. Packard. A new arrangement of the orders of insects. - The American Naturalist, 1886, 20 (9): 808]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Packard 1886): Ephemeridae Ephemera

SENIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYM: 

= Anisoptera Stephens 1835 (non Selys 1854)

JUNIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS: 

Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1890

= Plectopteradelphia Crampton 1916
= Archipterygota Borner 1909
= Prometabola Heymons 1909

NON-MONOSEMANTIC CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS (including †Protephemeroidea):
= Panephemeroptera Crampton 1928  
= Ephemeropteria Crampton 1938
= Ephemeropteroidea Rohdendorf 1968

NON-MONOSEMANTIC CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYM (without †Protephemeroidea, including †Permoplectoptera):
= Euephemeroptera Kluge 2000

NON-MONOSEMANTIC CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYM (without †Permoplectoptera):
= Euplectoptera Tillyard 1932  

HEMIHOMONYM: Plectoptera Saussure 1864 (available generic name)

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Ephemera/fg [f:1810; g:1758(gen.208)]
TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: Ephemera (sensu Linnaeus 1858), Ephemeraedes, Ephemeralia, Ephemerata, Ephemerida, Ephemeridae, Ephemeridea, Ephemerina, Ephemerinae, Ephemeroidea, Ephemeriformes

MODERN STATUS: circumscriptional synonym of the name Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1891.

COMMENT. In our days, a generally accepted name of this taxon is Ephemeroptera, while older names exist. A name Anisoptera Stephens 1835 was forgotten, and now the same name Anisoptera Selys 1854 is used for dragonflies. A name Plectoptera Packard 1886 by its etymology and spelling is very similar to a generally accepted name Plecoptera Burmeister 1839 (stoneflies), and because of this is not used (see below).

If only recent representatives are to be discussed, the taxon Ephemeroptera (= Plectoptera) looks distinctly outlined. In this case, all names listed above monosemantically fit it in circumscription, and a hierarchical name should be written as Ephemera/fg1. However, there are known several fossil Palaeozoic forms, which have relationship with recent mayflies, but do not fall into the taxon Ephemeroptera (= Plectoptera), if it is characterized by structure of recent representatives only. These extinct forms together with recent mayflies form a group Ephemeroptera s.l., or Panephemeroptera (or Ephemera/fg1), which includes a subordinate taxon also named Ephemeroptera, or Euephemeroptera (or Ephemera/fg2), which in its turn includes a subordinate taxon Ephemeroptera s.str., or Euplectoptera (or Ephemera/fg3), to which all recent mayflies belong. Classification of Ephemeroptera:

Panephemeroptera, or Ephemeroptera s.1 (Ephemera/fg1)
 Protephemeroidea (Triplosoba/fg1)
  Euephemeroptera, or Ephemeroptera s.2 (Ephemera/fg2)
    † Permoplectoptera (Protereisma/f1=Phtharthus/g1)
    Euplectoptera, or Ephemeroptera s.3 (Ephemera/fg3)

2) Plectoptera auct.

NOMEN: Plectoptera ?

SENIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS: 

= Plecoptera Burmeister 1839

= Perloptera Krausse & Wolff 1919

= Pleconeoptera Kukalova-Peck & Peck 1993

HEMIHOMONYM: Plectoptera Saussure 1864 (available generic name)

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT:  Perla/fg (incl. Nemoura) [f:1802; g:1762]

TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: Perla (sensu Geoffroy 1764), Perlariae, Perlarides, PerlaridaePerlides, Perlites, Perlina, Perlidae, Perlinae, Perlidi, Perloidea, Perlaria, Perlida

MODERN STATUS: junior circumscriptional synonym of the name Plecoptera Burmeister 1839


3) OPINION

In order to avoid confusion, the circumscriptional name Plectoptera should not be used as valid, neither as a senior synonym of Ephemeroptera, nor as an orthographic variant of Plecoptera. Only its hemihomonym - a genus-group name Plectoptera Saussure 1864 - should be used as valid.