Typified names:



1) Parametabola Weber 1933

2) Parametabola Crampton 1838

1) Parametabola Weber 1933

NOMEN: Parametabola Weber 1933 [H. Weber. Lehrbuch der Entomologie. Jena, 1933: 1-726]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Weber 1933): Coccidae Coccus - Mannchen


= Gallinsecta De Geer 1776

= Diptera Proboscidea Retzius 1783 (non Proboscidea Scopoli 1763)
= Phauloptera Laporte 1834
= Monomera Westwood 1840
= Pseudoptera Amyot 1848
= Microhomoptera Crampton 1916
= Coccoptera Krausse & Wolff 1919

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Coccus/fg (incl. Orthezia) [f:1814; g:1758(gen.201)]

TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE:  Coccida, Coccidae, Coccides, Coccidoides, Coccidomorpha, Coccina, Coccinea, Coccites, Coccoidea, Coccomorpha

MODERN STATUS: a junior circumsriptional synonym of Gallinsecta De Geer 1776.

COMMENT. The name Parametabola Weber 1933 was introduced not for a taxon, but for a type of metamorphosis, which is also called parametaboly. This type of metamorphosis is ascribed to males of Coccidae, but not to females of the same taxon.

 2) Parametabola Crampton 1938

NOMEN: Parametabola Crampton 1938 [G.C. Crampton. The interrelationships and lines of descent of living insects. - Psyche, 1938, 45 (4): 165-181]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Crampton 1938): Panpsocoptera + Condylognatha (= Panhemiptera) + Zoraptera

NON-MONOSEMANTIC CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS (with uncertain position of Zoraptera):

= Panhomoptera Crampton 1918 s.l.

= Paraneoptera Martynov 1923 s.l.

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Pediculus/f=Cicada/g (sine Zorotypus) [f:1777; g:1758(gen.195)]


MODERN STATUS: the oldest monosemantic name of a widely accepted, holophyletic taxon.
Classification of Parametabola:

Parametabola (= Paraneoptera s.l.)
Acercaria (= Paraneoptera s.str.)

Kluge 2010 BioNomina Dual-Nom :

Paraneoptera is the most familiar name of the taxon consisting of Acercaria and Zoraptera. Martynov (1938) preferred the name Paraneoptera Martynov 1923 as having priority over Parametabola Crampton 1938. In 1938 Martynov applied the name Paraneoptera to the same taxon as Parametabola, explicitly including Zoraptera; earlier, however, (e.g., Martynov 1923) he defined Paraneoptera rather vaguely (with Zoraptera not mentioned and Thysanoptera uncertainly placed), which later caused some authors (e.g., Grassé 1949, Grimaldi & Engel 2005) to apply the name Paraneoptera to a taxon excluding Zoraptera. Actually, the taxon excluding Zoraptera has an older and widely accepted name Acercaria Börner 1904 (Börner 1904, Königsmann 1960, Hennig 1969, 1981). Panhomoptera Crampton 1919 (not Paraneoptera) is the oldest name for the taxon with no mention of Zoraptera in original circumscription. Crampton’s (1919) superorder Panhomoptera included the orders “Corrodentia” (i.e. Copeognatha), Mallophaga, Siphunculata, Thysanoptera, and “Hemiptera” (i.e. Arthroidignatha). The oldest names for the taxon expressly including Zoraptera are Parametabola = Hemipteradelphia Crampton 1938, with Zoraptera listed in the original publication. Recent fierce debates around the placement of the Zoraptera underscores the need to use a name whose original circumscription monosemantically fits the taxon.

Weber (1933) used an identical name, Parametabola, to refer to male coccids (Gallinsecta) with their peculiar metamorphosis; since the females were not included, Weber’s “Parametabola” is not a taxon name, but rather a term of no nomenclatural standing.

Some recent workers place Zoraptera with the Polyneoptera rather than see it as sister to the Acercaria. The taxon Zoraptera + Polyneoptera has a monosemantic circumscriptional name Urota Chen 1962, and its junior monosemantical circumscriptional synonym is Polyneopterata Boudreaux 1979.


Börner C. 1904. Zur Systematic der Hexapoden. // Zoologischer Anzeiger, 27: 511–533.

Boudreaux H. B. 1979. Arthropod phylogeny with special reference to insects. New York, Chichester, Brisbane & Toronto (John Wiley & sons): 1–320.

Chen S. H. 1962. [Types of insect metamorphosis and a new system of insect classification]. // Acta entomologica sinica, 11 (1): 1–15. [In Chinese].

Crampton G. C. 1919. Notes on phylogeny of the Orthoptera. // Entomological News, 30 (2): 42–48; (3): 64–72.

Crampton G.C. 1938. The interrelationships and lines of descent of living insects. // Psyche, 45 (4): 165–181.

Grassé P.-P. 1949. Traité de Zoologie. Tomes 9–10. Insectes. Paris (Masson & Co.).

Grimaldi D. & Engel M. S. 2005. Evolution of the insects. Cambridge: 1–755.

Hennig W. 1969. Die Stammesgeschichte der Insecten. Frankfurt am Main (Krammer): 1–436.

Hennig W. 1981. Insect phylogeny. Translated and edited by A. C. Pont, revision notes by D. Sclee. Chichester, New York, Brisbane & Toronto (John Wiley & Sons): 1–514.

Königsmann E. 1960. Zur Phylogenie der Parametabola unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Phthiraptera. // Beiträge zur Entomologie, 10 (7–8): 705–744.

Martynov A.V. 1923. [About two types of insect wings and their significance for general classification of insects]. // [Proceedings of the 1st Russian Congress of Zoologists, Anatomists and Histologists in Petrograd, 15–21.XII.1922]: 88–89. [In Russian].

Martynov A.V. 1938. [Etudes sur l’histoire géologique et de phylogénie des ordres des Insectes (Pterygota). I. Palaeoptera et Neoptera-Polyneoptera]. // Trudy paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR [Travaux de l’Institut de Paléontologie de l’Académie des Sciences de l’USSR), 7 (4): 1–449. [In Russian].

Weber H. 1933. Lehrbuch der Entomologie. Jena: 1–726.