NOMINA CIRCUMSCRIBENTIA INSECTORUM

CONTENTS

REFERENCES

                                                   

Typified names:

Megaloptera

CONTENTS: 

1) Megaloptera Latreille 1802

2) Megaloptera Burmeister 1839

3) Opinion

1) Megaloptera Latreille 1802

NOMEN: Megaloptera Latreille 1802: 289 [P.A. Latreille. Histoire naturelle, générale et particuliere des Crustacés et des Insectes. T.3, 1802]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Latreille 1802): Meganeuroptera (= Chauliodes + Corydalus + Sialis) + Rhaphidioptera (= Raphidia)

JUNIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS:

= Emmenognatha Borner 1904
= Megalopteroidea
Krausse & Wolff 1919

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Raphidia/fg (incl. Chauliodes, Sialis) [f:1810; g:1758(gen.212)]
TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: -

MODERN STATUS: formally the oldest name for a taxon which some (but not all) authors accept and regard as holophyletic (see OPINION). Systematic position and classification of Emmenognatha:

Neuropteroidea
  Birostrata
  Emmenognatha (= Megaloptera Latreille 1802)
    Rhaphidioptera
    Meganeuroptera
      Eumegaloptera
      Nothomegaloptera

COMMENTS. Some authors wrongly use for Megaloptera junior typified name(s) Sialis/fg [f: Sialida Leach 1815; g: Sialis Latreille 1802, typus Hemerobius lutarius Linnaeus 1758]: Sialidae, Sialina, Sialidiformes, Sialidae, Sialides, Sialoidea, Sialida.


Kluge 2010 BioNomina Dual-Nom :

Currently the taxon consisting of Eumegaloptera and Nothomegaloptera is usually called “Megaloptera”, the name also used sometimes to refer to the taxon Eumegaloptera + Nothomegaloptera + Rhaphidioptera (Tillyard 1918, Hennig 1953, Mickoleit 1969, Hinton 1981). Originally the name Megaloptera Latreille 1802 was proposed for a family consisting of the genera Chauliodes, Corydalus, Sialis, and Raphidia, and fitting Emmenognatha Börner 1904 in circumscription. Later on, Latreille (1807, 1810, 1825) called “Megaloptera” a smaller taxon consisting of Chauliodes, Corydalus, and Sialis only, i.e. what was later named Meganeuroptera Crampton 1916. As the name Megaloptera is currently used both ways of which only the first is circumscriptionally correct, its extensive alternative use is misleading. Burmeister (1839) used the name “Megaloptera” for Birostrata.

The oldest circumscriptional name whose original circumscription fits the taxon that includes Eumegaloptera and Nothomegaloptera but excludes Rhaphidioptera is Meganeuroptera Crampton 1916. It is derived from ‘mega’ + ‘Neuroptera’ and should be not confused with its junior homonym Meganeuroptera Tillyard 1918 (derived from ‘Meganeura’ + ‘ptera’) (see below).


REFERENCES:

Burmeister H. 1832–1855. Handbuch der Entomologie. Berlin (G. Reimer), Bd. 1–5. Bd. 1, Allgemeine Entomologie (1832). Bd. 2, Besondere Entomologie: Abt. 1 (1835); Abt. 2.: Hf. 1 (1838); Hf. 2 (1839). Bd. 3 (1842). Bd. 4: Abt. 1 (1844); Abt. 2 (1855). Bd. 5 (1847).

Crampton G. C. 1916. The lines of descent of the lower pterygotan insects, with notes on the relationships of the other forms. Entomological News, 27 (6): 244–258; (7): 297–307.

Hennig W. 1953. Kritische Bemerkungen zum phylogenetischen System der Insecten. // Beiträge zur Entomologie, 3: 1–85.

Hinton H.E. 1981. Biology of insect eggs. Pergamon Press. Vol. 1: 1–473; vol. 2: 475–778; vol. 3: 779–1125.

Latreille P. A. 1802–1805. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes. Tomes 1–14. Paris.

Latreille P. A. 1806–1809. Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum secundum ordinem naturalem in familias disposita, iconibus exemplisque plurimis explicata. Paris & Argentorati (Amand Koenig). Tomus 1 (1806): 1–302, pl. 1–16; Tomus 2 (1807): 1–280; Tomus 3 (1807): 1–258; Tomus 4 (1809): 1–399.

Latreille P. A. 1810. Considérations générales sur l’ordre naturel des animaux composant les classes des Crustacés, des Arachnides, et des Insectes. Avec un tableau méthodique de leurs genres, disposés en familles. Paris (F. Schoell): 1–444.

Latreille P. A. 1825. Familles naturelles du règne animal, exposées succinctement et dans un ordre analytique, avec l’indication de leurs genres. Paris (Baillière): 1–570.

Mickoleit G. 1969. Vergleichend-anatomische Untersuchungen an der pterotorakalen Pleurotergalmuskulatur der Neuropteria und Mecopteria (Insecta, Holometabola). // Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere, 64 (2): 151–178.

Tillyard R. J. (1918–1919) The panorpoid complex. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales: Part 1, 1918, 43 (170): 265–319; Part 2, 1918, 43 (171): 626–657; Part 3, 1919, 44 (175): 533–718.


2) Megaloptera Burmeister 1839

NOMEN: Megaloptera Burmeister 1839 [H. Burmeister. Handbuch der Entomologie. Bd.2, Abt.2, Hf.2, 1839: 757-1050]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Burmeister 1839): Hemerobiidae Hemerobius  + Myrmeleontidae Myrmeleon

JUNIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS:
= Euneuropteroidea
Krausse & Wolff 1919
= Neuropterida Pearce 1936

= Birostrata Kluge 2005

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Myrmeleon/f=Hemerobius/g (sine Raphidia,Chauliodes) [f:1802; g:1758(gen.210)]
TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: Myrmeleonina, Myrmeleontida; Hemerobida, Hemerobidae, Hemerobiida, Hemerobiiformes, Hemerobiina, Hemerobiites, Hemerobiodea

MODERN STATUS: non-valid, junior homonym of Megaloptera Latreille 1802, synonym of Birostrata; belongs to a generally accepted, holophyletic taxon. Systematic position of Birostrata:

Neuropteroidea
  Birostrata (= Megaloptera Burmeister 1839)
  Rhaphidioptera
  Meganeuroptera
    Eumegaloptera
    Nothomegaloptera

3) OPINION

The formal original circumscription of the name Megaloptera Latreille 1802 is Rhaphidioptera + Meganeuroptera, but in modern literature it is often used for Meganeuroptera without Rhaphidioptera. In order to avoid confusion, we propose not to use the name Magaloptera, and instead it use the following names:

instead Megaloptera sensu Latreille 1806 - Meganeuroptera Crampton 1916;

instead Megaloptera sensu Latreille 1802 - Emmenognatha Borner 1904;

instead Megaloptera sensu Burmeister 1839 - Birostrata Kluge 2005.