NOMINA CIRCUMSCRIBENTIA INSECTORUM

CONTENTS

REFERENCES

                                                   

Typified names:

Holometabola Burmeister (1835) 1839

NOMEN: Holometabola Burmeister (1835) 1839: 39 [H. Burmeister. Handbuch der Entomologie. Bd.2, Abt.1, 1835] Google

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Burmeister 1839): (Diptera + Aphaniptera) (= "Diptera" sensu Burmeister 1829) + (Hymenoptera + Strepsiptera) (= "Hymenoptera" sensu Burmeister 1829) + Lepidoptera + Coleoptera sensu Degeer  

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Pediculus/f=Scarabaeus/g [f:1777; g:1758(gen.170)]
TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: -

MODERN STATUS: the oldest name of a non-accepted polyphyletic taxon (Kluge 2000).

The names Metabola Burmeister 1832, Holometabola Burmeister 1835 and Endopterygota Sharp 1899 are often used as synonyms; however, their original circumscriptions are different, and these names are nor circumscriptional synonyms:
WWWWWWWWWWWW






















































































Metabola Burmeister 1832 + + + + + + + + +
Holometabola Burmeister 1835 - - + - + + + + +
Endopterygota Sharp 1898 + + - + + + + + +
Oligoneoptera Martynov 1923 + + + + + + + + +


Kluge 2010 BioNomina Dual-Nom :

The taxon Metabola (= Oligoneoptera) encompassing all insects with complete metamorphosis, is generally accepted. Its newly discovered autapomorphies and the nature of the metamorphosis have been discussed in an earlier paper (Kluge 2005a).

The name “Holometabola”, routinely applied to this taxon, does not fit it in its original circumscription. The name was first published in ‘Handbuch der Entomologie’ (Burmeister 1832–1855). Volume 1 (1832) has no mention of Holometabola; the insects are divided into ‘Insecta ametabola’ and ‘Insecta metabola’, the latter containing what we include in this taxon now. The names Hemimetabola and Holometabola first appear in Part 1 of the Volume 2 (1835), with “Insecta ametabola Leach” mentioned as a synonym of Hemimetabola, and “Insecta metabola Leach” as a synonym of Holometabola. However, Leach (1815) used the names Ametabolia and Metabolia rather than Ametabola and Metabola, and placed with Metabolia Leach 1815 all the winged insects, not just those with complete metamorphosis.

In Volume 2, Burmeister defines Hemimetabola and Holometabola differently than ‘Insecta ametabola’ and ‘Insecta metabola’ in Volume 1: In Vol.1, what is now Trichoptera, Mecaptera, and Neuropteroidea was placed among ‘Insecta metabola’; in Vol.2, among Hemimetabola (Talbe 3), based on their walking pupa (At the time, the terms ʻpupaʼ and ʻnymphʼ were used interchangeably and applied to insects with any type of metamorphosis). Now we know that pupae of Trichoptera, Rhaphidioptera and some Birostrata can walk only at pharate imago phase; prior to that the pupal legs are immovable (Kluge 2005a).

Circumscriptional rules prohibit applying the name Holometabola Burmeister 1835 to any taxa that include Trichoptera, Mecaptera, or Neuropteroidea; the artificial taxon fitting original circumscription of the name Holometabola is no longer recognized. On the other hand, the name Metabola Burmeister 1832 in its original circumscription fits a larger taxon, generally recognized and considered holophyletic.

“Endopterygota” is another name widely used to refer to this taxon. However, the original circumscription of the name Endopterygota Sharp 1899 does not fit Metabola, since it does not include the fleas, which were placed then with Anapterygota Sharp 1899, a polyphyletic assemblage of insects that have lost wings (see Table). Some like the name Endopterygota because it reflects an alleged major autapomorphy of this taxon — the internal larval wing anlagen, which is in fact a misinterpreted feature (Kluge 2005a).


Some copies of the volume titled as "Handbuch der Entomologie von Herman Burmeister ... Zweiter Band ... Erste Abteilung ... 1835" do not contain the names "Hemimetabola" and "Holometabola" and contain table of contents up to the page 397 (BHL). Some copies with the same title and date contain the names "Hemimetabola" and "Holometabola" and contain table of contents up to the page 999 (Google). Pages 397-756 belong to the volume titled as "... Zweite Abteilung ... Erste Halfte ... 1838", and pages 757-999 belong to the volume titles as "... Zweite Abteilung ... Zweite Halfte ... 1839". This means, that the names "Hemimetabola" and "Holometabola" were first published not in 1835, but in 1839.

 

Entognatha

Triplura

Parasita

Ephemeroptera

Odonata

Polyneoptera

Copeognatha

Condylognatha

Neuropteroidea

Mecaptera

Trichoptera

Coleoptera

Strepsiptera

Hymenoptera

Diptera

Lepidoptera

Aphaniptera

Ametabolia Leach 1815

Metabolia Leach 1815

Ametabola Burmeister 1832

Metabola Burmeister 1832

Hemimetabola Burmeister 1835

Holometabola Burmeister 1835

Apterygota
Lang 1888:
Sharp 1899

Anapterygota
Sharp 1899,
partim

Exopterygota
Sharp 1899,

Endopterygota Sharp 1899

 

Anapterygota
Sharp 1899,
partim