NOMINA CIRCUMSCRIBENTIA INSECTORUM

CONTENTS

REFERENCES

                                                   

Typified names:

Hexapoda

CONTENTS: 

1) Hexapoda Batsch 1789

2) Hexapoda Latreille 1796

3) Hexapoda Latreille 1802

4) Hexapoda Latreille 1825

5) Opinion

1) Hexapoda Batsch 1789

NOMEN: Hexapoda Batsch 1789 [A.J.G.C. Batsch Versuch einer Anleitung, zur Kenntniß und Geschichte der Thiere und Mineralien, für akademische Vorlesungen entworfen, und mit den nöthigsten Abbildungen versehen. Zweyter Theil. Besondre Geschichte der Insekten, Gewürme und Mineralien. - Akademische Buchhandlung, Jena. 1789]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Batsch 1789): Lepisma + Pediculus + Podura + Pulex

JUNIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYM:

= Phthiroida Billberg 1820

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Lepisma/fg [f:1802; g:1758(gen.230)]
TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: -

MODERN STATUS: non-valid, forgotten name for a polyphyletic taxon, uniting primary wingless insects (Entognatha and Triplura) with secondary wingless insects (Parasita and Aphaniptera).


2) Hexapoda Latreille 1796

NOMEN: Hexapoda Latreille 1796 [P.A. Latreille. Présis des caractères génériques des insectes, disposés dans un ordre naturel. - Paris-Brive, Prévôt - F. Bourdeaux, 1796]

ORIGINAL SPELLING (Latreille 1796): Hexapodes (in French)

SUBSEQUENT SPELLING (Billberg 1820): Hexapoda (in Latin)

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Latreille 1796): Nycteribia + Carios + Leptus + Atomus

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Nycteribia/f=Leptus/g [f:1817; g:1795]
TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: -

MODERN STATUS: non-valid, forgotten name for a non-accepted, artificial taxon which united unusual parasitic wingless Diptera Nycteribia with six-legged larval mites.


3) Hexapoda Latreille 1802

NOMEN: Hexapoda Latreille 1802 [P.A. Latreille Histoire naturelle, générale et particuliere des Crustacés et des Insectes. T.2. 1802. Paris, de l'Imprimerie de F. Dufart: 1-382, pl.2-15]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Latreille 1802):  "Coleoptera" (= Eleuterata) + "Orthoptera" + Hemiptera + Neuroptera + Hymenoptera + Lepidoptera + Diptera + Suctoria (= Aphaniptera) + Thysanoura (= Apterygota) + Parasita

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Pediculus/f=Scarabaeus/g (incl. Podura) [f:1777; g:1758(gen.170)]
TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: -

MODERN STATUS: the oldest and generally accepted name of a holophyletic taxon (see Kluge 1999, 2000).

Systematic position of Hexapoda:

different classifications:

Atelocerata
   Myriapoda
   Hexapoda
Pancrustacea
  
Eucrustacea
   Hexapoda

Classifications of Hexapoda:

modern
phylogenetic
classification:00

other0classifications:000000000000000000000000000000

 
Hexapoda
 
Entognatha
    Protura
    Collembola
    Diplura
 
Amyocerata
    Triplura
    Pterygota
Hexapoda
 
Apterygota
    Protura
    Collembola
    Diplura
    Triplura
 
Pterygota
    Pterygota
Hexapoda
 
Ellipura
    Protura

    Collembola
 
Pleomerentoma
    Diplura
    Triplura
    Pterygota
Hexapoda
 
Protura
    Protura
  Holomerentoma
    Collembola 
    Diplura
    Triplura
    Pterygota
 

COMMENT. Often this taxon is wrongly named Insecta.


4) Hexapoda Latreille 1825

NOMEN: Hexapoda Latreille 1825 [P.A. Latreille . Présis des caractères génériques des insectes, disposés dans un ordre naturel. - Paris-Brive, Prévôt - F. Bourdeaux, 1796]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Latreille 1825): Papilio, Parnassius, Thais, Colias, Pieris, Danais, Idea, Heliconus, Acraea

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Papilio/fg [f:1781; g:1758(gen.203)]
TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: -

MODERN STATUS: non-valid name for a paraphyletic taxon.


5) OPINION

The senior homonym Hexapoda Batsch 1789 belongs to a polyphyletic taxon and was never used since original publication; it should be regarded as NOMEN OBLITUM.

The senior homonym Hexapoda Latreille 1796 belongs to a forgotten, artificial taxon and was used only by few authors at the end of XVIII - the beginning of XIX century (Latreille 1796, Billberg 1820); it should be regarded as NOMEN OBLITUM. 

The junior homonym Hexapoda Latreille 1802 belongs to a taxon generally accepted since Blainville 1816 till now; it should be regarded as valid name.

Kluge 2010 BioNomina Dual-Nom :

The name Insecta, often used for Hexapoda, has a long history of inconsistent use. “Insecta” is the Latin translation of Aristotle’s εντομον (Entomon) — a name applied for terrestrial arthropods other than crabs, which Aristotle placed in μαλακόστρακα (Malacostraca). Initially the name Insecta was used for the same taxon, which is not currently recognized. Priority rules attribute its formal authorship to Linnaeus (Insecta Linnaeus 1758) who, however, defied the tradition and included crabs within the order Aptera of his class Insecta (Linnaeus 1735, 1758). So the Linnaean class Insecta approximately corresponded to the taxon now known as Arthropoda Siebold, 1848, but included also a polychaete, Scolopendra marina, whereas some eucrustaceans [genera Lepas sensu Linnaeus 1758 (now Cirripedia) and Lernaea sensu Linnaeus 1758 (parasitic copepodoids)] were placed in the class Vermes instead. 

Later (e.g., Fabricius 1792–1798, Latreille 1796), the name Insecta was sometimes accepted in the Linnaean circumscription. The same name was used also in its traditional meaning, i.e., for a taxon which excludes crabs (e.g., Latreille 1802–1805). Lamarck (1801) applied the name Insecta to winged insects; other authors applied the name Insecta to taxa of various circumscriptions intermerdiate between the Linnaean and the Lamarckian. This is how the name Insecta, as used by different authors since Linnaeus, refers to various taxa: 

Insecta: Linnaeus 1758 = Condylopa Latreille 1825 (subequal to Arthropoda Siebold 1848);

Insecta: Lamarck 1801 = Pterodicera Latreille 1802;

Insecta: Latreille 1802 = Tracheata Haeckel 1866;

Insecta: Leach 1815 = Hexapoda Blainville 1816;

Insecta: Cuvier 1817 = Atelocerata Heymons 1901;

Insecta: Packard 1883 = Dimalata Sharov 1966;

Insecta: Kingsley 1894 = Opisthogoneata Pocock 1893;

Insecta: Handschin 1958 = Amyocerata Remington 1955;

Insecta: Chen 1962 = Pleomerentoma Krausse et Wolff 1919.

There was never a consensus usage for the name Insecta: at every single point different workers used it to refer to different things.

Applied mostly to a class-rank taxon, this non-typified name was thus misused as rank-based (see Dual-Nom), which caused a great deal of confusion and even made some people believe in the polyphyly of the Hexapoda for no other reason than nomenclatural change (Kluge 1996a, 1999b, 2000).

There is, though, a widely accepted name, Hexapoda Blainville 1816, whose original circumscription fits the taxon to which it is applied. Introduced originally in French only (“Hexapodes”), the name should be available with original authorship in subsequent Latin spelling (see Dual-Nom).

The name Hexapoda Blainville 1816 should be valid, in spite of the fact that it is preoccupied: its senior homonym, Hexapoda Latreille 1796, was proposed for an artificial taxon that combined wingless flies (Nycteribia) with six-legged mite larvae and has not been used since the beginning of the 19th century.

The name Hexapoda Blainville 1816 has no circumscriptional synonyms and is the only circumscriptional name applicable to this taxon.


REFERENCES:

Blainville M. H., de 1816. Prodrome d’une nouvelle distribution systématique du règne animal. // Bulletin de la Société Philomathique de Paris 8: 113–124.

Fabricius J.C. 1792-1799. Entomologia Systematica emendata et Aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species. Adjectus synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. T.1, ps.1 (1792): 1-330; T.2, ps.2 (1792): 1-538;  T.2 (1793): 1-519; T.3, ps.1 (1793): 1-487; T.3, ps.2 (1794): 1-349; T.4 (1794): 1-479; Index alphabeticus (1796-1799). // Hafniae, Impensis Christ. Gottl. Proft.

Fabricius J.C. 1799. Supplementum Entomologiae systematicae. // Hafniae, Apud. Proft et Storch: 1-572.

Kluge N. J. 1996a. [Myths in insect systematics and principles of zoological nomenclature]. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 75 (4): 939–944 [In Russian].

Kluge N.J. 1999b. Mitos en sistematica y principos de nomenclatura zoological. / Myths in systematics and principles of zoological nomenclature. // In: A. Melic, J. J. de Haro, M. Mendes & I. Ribera (ed.). Evolution y filogenia de Arthropoda. // Boletin de la Sociedad entomologica aragonesa, 26 (Volumen monografico),. Zaragoza: 347–377.

Kluge N.J. 2000. Sovremennaya sistematika nasekomyh (...). [Modern systematics of insects. Part 1. Principles of systematics of living organisms and general system of insects with classification of primary wingless and paleopterous insects]. Saint-Petersburg (Lan’): 1–336. [In Russian].

Lamarck J.B. 1801. Systeme des animaux sans vertebres...[ou tableau genera des classes, des erdres et des genres de ces animaux; presentant leurs caracteres essentiels et leur distribution, d'apres la consideration de leurs ...]. // Paris, Detreville, VIII : 1-432.

Latreille P.A. 1796. Présis des caractères génériques des insectes, disposés dans un ordre naturel. // Paris-Brive, Prévôt - F. Bourdeaux, impr. libr. XI [3] 1-201 [7].

Latreille P.A. 1802-1805. Histoire naturelle, générale et particuliere des Crustacés et des Insectes. // Paris., T.4-14.

Linnaeus C. 1735. Systema Naturae, sive Regna tria Naturae systematice proposita per Classes, Ordines, Genera, & Species. // Ex Typographia Joannis Willhem de Groot.

Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. // A photograph faccimile of the first volume of the tenth edition (1758). London, Brit. Mus. (N.H.). 1-824.