Typified names:

Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1891

NOMEN: Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1890 [A. Hyatt, J.M. Arms. Guides for Science Teaching, No.VIII. Insecta. 1890; A. Hyatt, J.M. Arms. A novel diagrammatic representation of the orders of insects. - Psyche, 1891, v.6, No.177: 11-13]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Hyatt & Arms 1890): Plectoptera


= Anisoptera Stephens 1829 (non Selys 1854)
= Plectoptera Packard 1886 (non Plecoptera Burmeister 1839)

= Archipterygota Borner 1909
= Prometabola Heymons 1909

= Plectopteradelphia Crampton 1916

= Panephemeroptera Crampton 1928  
= Ephemeropteria Crampton 1938  
= Ephemeropteroidea Rohdendorf 1968  

NON-MONOSEMANTIC CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYM (without †Protephemeroidea, including †Permoplectoptera):
= Euephemeroptera Kluge 2000

= Euplectoptera Tillyard 1932  

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Ephemera/fg [f:1810; g:1758(gen.208)]
TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: Ephemera (sensu Linnaeus 1758), Ephemeraedes, Ephemeralia, Ephemerata, Ephemerida, Ephemeridae, Ephemeridea, Ephemerina, Ephemerinia, Ephemerinae, Ephemeroidea, Ephemeriformes

MODERN STATUS: the valid (but not the oldest) name of a generally accepted, holophyletic taxon.

COMMENT. In our days, a generally accepted name of this taxon is Ephemeroptera, while older names exist. Authorship of the name Ephemeroptera is discussional; probably in the end of XIX - beginning of XX century, several authors independently one from another created this name. A name Anisoptera Stephens 1835 was forgotten, and now the same name Anisoptera Selys 1854 is used for dragonflies. A name Plectoptera Packard 1886 by its etymology and spelling is very similar to a generally accepted name Plecoptera Burmeister 1839 (stoneflies), and because of this is not used.

If only recent representatives are to be discussed, the taxon Ephemeroptera looks distinctly outlined. In this case, all names listed above monosemantically fit it in circumscription, and a hierarchical name should be written as Ephemera/fg1. However, there are known several fossil Palaeozoic forms, which have relationship with recent mayflies, but do not fall into the taxon Ephemeroptera, if it is characterized by structure of recent representatives only. These extinct forms together with recent mayflies form a group Ephemeroptera s.l., or Panephemeroptera (or Ephemera/fg1), which includes a subordinate taxon also named Ephemeroptera, or Euephemeroptera (or Ephemera/fg2), which in its turn includes a subordinate taxon Ephemeroptera s.str., or Euplectoptera (or Ephemera/fg3), to which all recent mayflies belong. Classification of Ephemeroptera:

Panephemeroptera, or Ephemeroptera s.1 (Ephemera/fg1)
 Protephemeroidea (Triplosoba/fg1)
  Euephemeroptera, or Ephemeroptera s.2 (Ephemera/fg2)
    † pm.Permoplectoptera (Protereisma/f1=Phtharthus/g1)
    Euplectoptera, or Ephemeroptera s.3 (Ephemera/fg3)