NOMINA CIRCUMSCRIBENTIA INSECTORUM

CONTENTS

REFERENCES

                                                   

Typified names:

Eleuterata Pocock 1893

NOMEN: Eleuterata Fabricius 1775 [ J.C. Fabricius. Systema Entomologiae, sistens insectorum classes, ordines genera, species, adiectus synonymus, locis, descriptionibus, observations. - Lipsiae, in Offic.libr. Kortii], 1775: 1-832

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP ( Fabricius 1775): Lucanus + Scarabaeus  + Trox + Melolontha + Trichius + Cetonia + Hister + Apate + Dermestes + Melyris + Bostrichus + Byrrhus + Antherinus + Anobium + Ptinus + Bruchus + Elophorus + Sphaeridium + Tritoma + Hispa + Nicrophorus + Silpha + Opatrum + Nitidula + Coccinella + Cassida + Alurnus + Chrysomela + Cryptocephalus + Altica + Cistela + Crioceris + Erotylus + Lagria + Zygia + Zonitis + Apalus + Curculio + Attelabus + Clerus + Notoxus + Spondylis + Prionus + Cerambyx + Lamia + Stenocorus + Calopus + Rhagium + Saperda + Callidium + Donacia + Leptura + Lampyrus + Pyrochroa + Lymexylon + Cucujus + Cantharis + Malachius + Necydalis + Elater + Buprestis + Cicindela + Elaphrus + Hydrophilus + Dytiscus + Gyrinus + Carabus + Scarites + Sepidium + Pimelia + Scaurus + Blaps + Tenebrio + Helops + Erodius + Meloe + Lytta + Mylabris + Cerocoma + Mordella + Staphylinus + Oxyporus + Paederus

SENIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYM:

= [Coleoptera De Geer 1774] (non Linnaeus 1758) (see below)

JUNIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS:

= Elytroptera Clairville 1798

= Coleopteria Rafinesque 1815
= Heteroptera Burmeister 1835 (non Latreille 1810)

= Coleopterida Pearce 1936 

= Elytraria Machatschke 1962

NON-MONOSEMANTIC CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS (including Strepsiptera - see COMMENT):

Elytrophora Packard 1883

= Coleopteroidea Handlirsch 1903

= Pancoleoptera Crampton 1938

= Coleopteria Crampton 1938

= Coleopterida Boudreaux 1979

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Scarabaeus/fg (incl. Carabus, Cupes) [f:1781; g:1758(gen.192)]
TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: Scaraboides, Scarabaeida

MODERN STATUS:the oldest circumscriptional name of a generally accepted, holophyletic taxon.

Kluge 2010 BioNomina Dual-Nom :

This generally recognized taxon, the beetles, is mostly called “Coleoptera”. The name dates back to Aristotle and has the history of being applied to various taxa accommodating a range of insects with wing covers, not just beetles. Under the starting point rule, its formal authorship is Coleoptera Linnaeus 1758. Originally, Coleoptera included besides true beetles (genera Scarabaeus, Dermestes, Hister, Silpha, Cassida, Coccinella, Chrysomela, Curculio, Attelabus, Cerambyx, Leptura, Cantharis, Elater, Cicindela, Buprestis, Dytiscus, Carabus, Tenebrio, Meloe, Mordella, Necydalis and Staphylinus), the genera Forficula, Blatta and Gryllus (incl. Mantis, Acrida, Bulla, Acheta, Tettigonia, Locusta) with combined circumscription of Dermatoptera + Neoblattariae + Raptoriae + Spectra + Saltatoria. Thus, original circumscription of the name Coleoptera does not fit the taxon to which it is now applied.

Fabricius (1775) split the Linnaean Coleoptera into two orders, Eleuterata and Ulonata. Eleuterata Fabricius 1775 is the oldest circumscriptional name for the taxon that includes true beetles only.

Till the end of the 18th century, the name Coleoptera was often used to refer to a taxon which, besides beetles, included at least Forficula (Olivier 1789), but since the beginning of 19th century, the name was applied to beetles only, with Eleuterata as its junior synonym.

In cases where the strict enforcement of the Code goes against a deeply rooted tradition, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature may rule to legalize the traditional usage. The Commission does not deal with circumscriptional names yet, but in the future, with articles regulating circumscriptional names added to the Code, the Commission might consider this case. I would propose to have the name Coleoptera suppressed in all pre-1774 publications and conserve the name Coleoptera De Geer 1774 as a senior circumscriptional synonym of Eleuterata Fabricius 1775. De Geer (1774) was the first to apply the name Coleoptera to nothing but true beetles.