NOMINA CIRCUMSCRIBENTIA INSECTORUM

CONTENTS

REFERENCES

                                                   

Typified names:

Coleoptera

CONTENTS: 

1) Coleoptera Linnaeus 1758

2) Coleoptera sensu De Geer 1774

3) Opinion

1) Coleoptera Linnaeus 1758

NOMEN: Coleoptera Linnaeus 1758: 342 [C. Linnaeus. Systema Naturae, ed. 10, 1758, T.1: 1-824 ]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Linnaeus 1758): Coleoptera sensu De Geer 1774 (= Scarabaeus + Dermestes + Hister + Silpha + Cassida + Coccinella + Chrysomela + Curculio + Attelabus + Cerambyx + Leptura + Cantharis + Elater + Cicindela + Buprestis + Dytiscus + Carabus + Tenebrio + Meloe + Mordella + Necydalis + Staphylinus) + Dermatoptera (= Forficula) + Neoblattariae (= Blatta) + (Raptoriae + Spectra) (= Gryllus-Mantis) + Saltatoria (= Gryllus-Acrida + Gryllus-Bulla + Gryllus-Acheta + Gryllus-Tettigonia + Gryllus-Locusta)

JUNIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS:

= Frischii Scopoli 1777: 372

= Fabricii Scopoli 1777: 438

= Elytroptera Odontota Latreille 1806 (non Gymnoptera-Odontota Latreille 1806)

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Scarabaeus/fg (incl. Gryllus, Forficula) [f:1781; g:1758(gen.170)]
TYPIFIED NAME IN USE: -

MODERN STATUS: non-used (forgotten) name of a non-accepted polyphyletic taxon.


2) Coleoptera sensu De Geer 1774

NOMEN: Coleoptera De Geer 1774: 1 [C. De Geer. Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des insectes. T.4. 1774. - Stockholm, De l'Impr. de L.L. Grefing]

ORIGINAL SPELLING: coleoptera Insecta 

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (De Geer 1774): Staphylinus + Lampyrus + Cantharis + Colliuris+ Carabus + Cicindela + Buprestis + Elater + Silpha + Dermestes + Ptinus + Scarabaeus + Lucanus + Hister + Attelabus + Gyrinus + Hydrophilus + Dytiscus + Meloe + Pyrochroa + Mordella + Tenebrio + Cerambyx + Leptura + Necydalis + Clerus + Cassida + Ips + Curculio + Bruchus + Antribus + Chrysomela + Coccinella

JUNIOR CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS:
= Eleuterata Fabricius 1775
= Elytroptera Clairville 1798

= Coleopteria Rafinesque 1815
= Heteroptera Burmeister 1835 (non Latreille 1810)

= Coleopterida Pearce 1936 

= Elytraria Machatschke 1962

NON-MONOSEMANTIC CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYMS (including Strepsiptera - see COMMENT):

Elytrophora Packard 1883

= Coleopteroidea Handlirsch 1903

= Pancoleoptera Crampton 1938

= Coleopteria Crampton 1938

= Coleopterida Boudreaux 1979

NON-MONOSEMANTIC CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYM (distinctly with Archostemata - see COMMENT):

= Elytraria Machatschke 1962

NON-MONOSEMANTIC CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAL SYNONYM (without Archostemata - see COMMENT):

= Pantophaga Klausnitzer 1975

TYPIFIED NAMES(S): Scarabaeus/fg (incl. Carabus, Cupes) [f: Scaraboides Laicharting 1781; g: Scarabaeus Linnaeus 1758: 345]
TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: Scaraboides, Scarabaeida

MODERN STATUS: the generally accepted name of a generally accepted, holophyletic taxon.
Systematic position and classification of Coleoptera:
Elytrophora (or Coleoptera s.l.)
  Strepsiptera

  Coleoptera
    Archostemata
    Pantophaga
(or Coleoptera s.str.)
      Adephagi
      Myxophaga
      Polyphaga

COMMENT. When the name Coleoptera was introduced, neither Strepsiptera, nor Archostemata were discovered. Because of this, the name Coleoptera sensu De Geer 1774 can be formally regarded as a non-monosemantic name, which can be ascribed to any of the three different subordinated taxa - Elytrophora Packard 1883, Elytraria Machatschke 1962 and Pantophaga Klausnitzer 1975; really, some authors used the name Coleoptera in each of these meanings - see . But from the literature of XVIII-XIX centuries we can proceed, that if Stepsiptera and Archostemata would be known to De Geer, his Coleoptera would not include Stepsiptera and would include Archostemata. During the first half of the XIX century, representatives of Strepsiptera were placed either to a separate order (Kirby 1813, et al.), or to Hymenoptera (Rossi 1793, et al.), or to Diptera (Lamarck 1816, et al.), or to other orders, but not to Coleoptera; only beginning from the second half of the XIX century their place within or near Cleoptera was determined (Lankester 1877 et al.). Up to the middle of the XX century, representatives of Archostemata were not opposed to all other Coleoptera, but were attribulted to one of subordinate taxa of Coleoptera - either to Malacodermi (Latreille1802, et al.), or to Adephagi (Kolbe 1901, Lameere 1938 et al.). So Coleoptera can be regarded as a monosemantic name, the senior synonym of Elytraria, but not a synonym of Elytrophora or Pantophaga.


3) OPINION

Kluge 2010 BioNomina Dual-Nom :

This generally recognized taxon, the beetles, is mostly called “Coleoptera”. The name dates back to Aristotle and has the history of being applied to various taxa accommodating a range of insects with wing covers, not just beetles. Under the starting point rule, its formal authorship is Coleoptera Linnaeus 1758. Originally, Coleoptera included besides true beetles (genera Scarabaeus, Dermestes, Hister, Silpha, Cassida, Coccinella, Chrysomela, Curculio, Attelabus, Cerambyx, Leptura, Cantharis, Elater, Cicindela, Buprestis, Dytiscus, Carabus, Tenebrio, Meloe, Mordella, Necydalis and Staphylinus), the genera Forficula, Blatta and Gryllus (incl. Mantis, Acrida, Bulla, Acheta, Tettigonia, Locusta) with combined circumscription of Dermatoptera + Neoblattariae + Raptoriae + Spectra + Saltatoria. Thus, original circumscription of the name Coleoptera does not fit the taxon to which it is now applied.

Fabricius (1775) split the Linnaean Coleoptera into two orders, Eleuterata and Ulonata. Eleuterata Fabricius 1775 is the oldest circumscriptional name for the taxon that includes true beetles only.

Till the end of the 18th century, the name Coleoptera was often used to refer to a taxon which, besides beetles, included at least Forficula (Olivier 1789), but since the beginning of 19th century, the name was applied to beetles only, with Eleuterata as its junior synonym.

In cases where the strict enforcement of the Code goes against a deeply rooted tradition, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature may rule to legalize the traditional usage. The Commission does not deal with circumscriptional names yet, but in the future, with articles regulating circumscriptional names added to the Code, the Commission might consider this case. I would propose to have the name Coleoptera suppressed in all pre-1774 publications and conserve the name Coleoptera De Geer 1774 as a senior circumscriptional synonym of Eleuterata Fabricius 1775. De Geer (1774) was the first to apply the name Coleoptera to nothing but true beetles.

Authorship "Coleoptera (L.) De Geer" was proposed by Handlirsch (1903) and Börner (1904).