Typified names:

Birostrata Kluge 2005

NOMEN: Birostrata Kluge 2005 
[N J. Kluge.
Larval/pupal leg transformation and a new diagnosis for the taxon Metabola Burmeister, 1832 = Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1923. – Russian Entomological Journal, (2004)  2005, 13 (4): 189-229]: p.191
[N.J. Kluge. Metamorphosis and homology of mouthparts in Neuropteroidea (Hexapoda: Metabola), with remarks on systematics and nomenclature. – Russian Entomological Journal, 2005, 14 (2): 87-100]: p.90


Kluge 2005 (2004): Myrmeleon/f + Hemerobius/g

Kluge 2005: Myrmeleon/fg + Hemerobius/fg + Chrysopa/fg + Osmylus/fg + Sisyra/fg + Coniopteryx/fg + Dilar/fg + Mantispa/fg + Berotha/fg + Ithone/fg + Polystoechotes/fg + Nevrorthus/fg

= Megaloptera
Burmeister 1839 (non Megaloptera Latreille 1802, nec 1807)

= Neuropterida Pearce 1936

= Euneuropteroidea Krausse & Wolff 1919

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Myrmeleon/f=Hemerobius/g

TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: Myrmeleontida, Myrmeleontina, Hemerobiina, Hemerobiites, Hemerobida, Hemerobidae, Hemerobiida, Hemerobiidae, Hemerobiidi, Hemerobiiformes, Hemerobiodea

MODERN STATUS:  the valid, the oldest name of a generally accepted, holophyletic taxon. 
Systematic position of Birostrata:


COMMENTS. In its circumscriction Birostrata fits:


  Neuroptera sensu Handlirsch 1903 (non Neuroptera Linnaeus 1758);
  Stegoptera sensu Banks 1907 (non Stegoptera Dumeril 1805);
  Planipennia sensu Heymons 1915 (non Planipennes Latreille 1817, nec Planipennia Burmeister 1839).


Kluge 2010 BioNomina Dual-Nom :

Nowadays the taxon Birostrata Kluge 2005 — the lacewings with paired piercing-sucking larval mouth apparatus — is usually called “Neuroptera” or “Planipennia”. The circumscription originally assigned to either name is inconsistent with the taxon as presently recognized.

The name Neuroptera Linnaeus 1758 originally refers to an order including genera Libellula, Ephemera, Phryganea, Hemerobius, Panorpa, and Raphidia with combined circumscription of Odonata + Ephemeroptera + Trichoptera + Plecoptera + Meganeuroptera + Birostrata + Isoptera + Copeognatha + Mecaptera + Rhaphidioptera. Neuroptera sensu Linnaeus 1758 is now considered to be paraphyletic and no longer recognized as a taxon. Subsequently, this Linnaean order was broken down into a number of smaller orders, one of which inherited the name Neuroptera. MacLeay (1821) designated Libellula as the type for the name Neuroptera, so some workers, splitting Linnaean Neuroptera, applied the name Neuroptera to the group where the dragon- and damselflies were placed. Others, however, did, and still do, variously apply the name to groups not including Libellula (see Table) and mostly treated as orders, so this non-typified name is misused as a rank-based one (see Dual-Nom: 2.1).

The name Planipennes Latreille 1817 is sometimes misinterpreted as French and therefore often spelled ‘Planipennia’; however, Latreille (1825) spells ‘Planipennes’ in both Latin and French elsewhere. Originally (Latreille 1817) the family Planipennes consisted of genera (or subgenera in Cuvier’s sense) Nemoptera, Bittacus, Panorpa, Boreus, Myrmeleon, Ascalaphus, Hemerobius, Osmylus, “Semblis” (i.e. Sialis), Raphidia, Termes, Psocus and Perla, with combined circumscription of Mecaptera + Birostrata + Meganeuroptera + Rhaphidioptera + Isoptera + Copeognatha + Plecoptera. Thus, Planipennes is a junior circumscriptional synonym of Stegoptera Dumeril 1805.

Burmeister (1835–1839) was the first to use the spelling ‘Planipennia’. His tribe Planipennia Burmeister 1839 consisted of the families “Sialidae” (should be Corydalidae), Panorpina, Rhaphidiodea, Hemerobiidae, and Myrmeleontidae, with combined circumscription of Meganeuroptera + Mecaptera + Rhaphidioptera + Birostrata. Some modern authors use the name “Planipennia” for Birostrata; this usage goes back to ‘Brehms Tierleben’ (Heymons 1915) and is inconsistent with circumscriptional principles.

In Burmeister’s 1839 classification, the taxon fitting Birostrata and consisting of his families Hemerobiidae and Myrmeleontidae was named Megaloptera. Originally, the name Megaloptera Latreille 1802 was proposed for a taxon consisting of Meganeuroptera + Rhaphidioptera but no member of Birostrata.

Birostrata Kluge 2005 is the name I gave this taxon, generally accepted for a century yet having no valid circumscriptional name. The taxon is characterized by unique paired piercing-sucking larval mouth apparatus whose homology was first established in the same paper (Kluge 2005b).


Burmeister H. 1832–1855. Handbuch der Entomologie. Bd. 1–5: Bd.1. Allgemeine Entomologie (1832); Bd.2. Besondere Entomologie: Abt.1. (1835); Abt.2.: Hf.1. (1838); Hf.2. (1839); Bd.3 (1842), Bd. 4: Abt. 1 (1844); Abt. 2 (1855); Bd. 5 (1847).

Dumeril C.A.M. 1806. Zoologie analytique, ou méthode naturelle de classification des animaux, rendue plus facile à l’aide de tableaux synoptiques. Paris, Allais, Libraire, Quaides Augustins, 39, 1–344.

Heymons R. 1915. Die Vielfüßler, Insecten und Spinnenkerfe. In: O. Straffen (ed.). Brehms Tierleben. Allgemeine Kunde des Tierreichs, Bd.2, 1–717.

Kluge N.J. 2005. Metamorphosis and homology of mouthparts in Neuropteroidea (Hexapoda: Metabola), with remarks on systematics and nomenclature. // Russian Entomological Journal, 14 (2), 87–100.

Latreille P.A. 1802–1805. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes. Paris, T.1–14.

Latreille P.A. 1817. T.3. Les crustacés, les arachnides et les insectes, 1–653. In: Cuvier G. Le règne animal distribué d’après son organisation, pour servir de base à l’histoire naturelle des animaux et d’introduction à l’anatomie comparée. Aves figures, dessinées d’après nature. Paris, Deterville.

Latreille P.A. 1825. Familles naturelles du règne animal, exposées succinctement et dans un ordre analitique, avec l’indication de leurs genres. Paris, J.B. Baillière, libr., 1–570.

Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. T.I. [A photographic facsimile of the first volume of the tenth edition. London, British Museum of Natural History, 1956, 1–824].

MacLeay W.S. 1821. Horae entomologicae, or essay on the annulose animals. Vol.I. Part II. Containing an attempt to ascertain the rank and situation which the celebrated Egyptian insect, Scarabaeus Sacer, holds among organized beings. London, Print. for S. Bagster by Richard and Arthur Taylor, 161–524.