Typified names:

Arthroidignatha Spinola 1850

NOMEN: Arthroidignatha Spinola 1850: 25 [M.M. Spinola. Tavola sinottica dei generi spettani all classe degli insetti Arthroidignati, Hemiptera Linn., Latr. – Rhyngota Fab. – Rhynchota Burm. -- Memoria del Socio Attuale signor Marchese Massimiliano Spinola Modena, Dal tipi delle R.D. Camera. Soc. Ital. Sci., 1850, T.25, pt.1: 1-138]

ORIGINAL LISTED MEMBERSHIP (Spinola 1850): Heteroptera (= Prostomophora + Hybridae + Aquilicolae) + Auchenorrhyncha (= Hypocephalocera) + Plantisuga (= Apocephalocera)


= Semivaginata Schluga 1766

= Hemipteroidea Handlirsch 1903

= Hemipteradelphia Crampton 1924

= Panhemiptera Crampton 1924
= Hemipteriforma Metcalf 1951

= Hemipteroida Müller 1963
= Hemipterida Boudreaux 1979
= Homopteroidea Brodsky 1994

TYPIFIED NAME IN BASIC FORMAT: Cimex/f=Cicada/g (sine Thrips; incl. Aphis)

TYPIFIED NAMES IN USE: Cimicida, Cimicidea

MODERN STATUS: the oldest, the valid name of a generally accepted, holophyletic taxon.
Systematic position of Arthroidignatha:








Classification of Arthroidignatha:

Arthroidignatha (Cimex/f=Cicada/g)

  Plantisuga (Aphis/fg)

    Aphidococca (Aphis/fg)

      Gynaptera (Aphis/fg)

      Gallinsecta (Coccus/fg)

    Psyllaleyroda (Psylla/fg)

      Saltipedes (Psylla/fg)

      Scytinelytra (Aleyrodes/fg)

  Hemelytrata (Cimex/f=Cicada/g)

    Auchenorrhyncha (Cicada/fg)

      Euhomoptera (Cicada/fg)

      Sybtericornes (Fulgora/fg)

    Heteropteroidea (Cimex/f=Notonecta/g)

      Coleorrhyncha (Peloridium/fg)

      Heteroptera (Cimex/f=Notonecta/g)

COMMENT. Some authors wrongly regard names Hemiptera, Ryngota, Rhynchota and Arthroidignatha as synonyms; actually original circumscriptions of these names are different: 


Hemiptera Linnaeus 1758





Ryngota Fabricius 1775 = Rhyngota Fabricius 1799





Rhynchota Burmeister 1835





Arthroidignatha Spinola 1850





Kluge 2010 BioNomina Dual-Nom :

The widespread use of the names “Hemiptera” and “Rhynchota” to refer to the taxon consisting of Heteroptera, Coleorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha, and Plantisuga, goes against circumscriptional principles. Original circumscriptions of the names Ryngota, Rhyngota, and Rhynchota do not fit the taxon Arthroidignatha.

The name Ryngota Fabricius 1775 and its emendation Rhyngota Fabricius 1799 were originally proposed for a taxon (order, or class) that included, besides genera of Arthroidignatha (Fulgora, Membracis, Tettigonia, Cicada, Cercopis, Notonecta, Sigara, Nepa, Naucoris, Acanthia, Cimex, Reduvius, Aphis, Chermes and Coccus), the genera Thrips and Pulex, consistent with the current Thysanoptera and Aphaniptera. The fleas (Aphaniptera) being now placed with the Metabola, the taxon Ryngota is unacceptable as polyphyletic and, consequently, its name should be not used.

Original circumscription of the name Rhynchota Burmeister 1835 also does not fit Arthroidignatha. Burmeister (1835) introduced the name Rhynchota as an emendation of Fabricius’s Rhyngota, yet used it for a differently circumscribed taxon Arthroidignatha + Siphunculata. Thus, unlike Rhyngota, the original circumscription of the name Rhynchota does not include Aphaniptera and Thysanoptera, but includes Siphunculata. Such unjustified emendation of a circumscriptional name is considered a new name with its own authorship, year, and circumscription. By mid-19th century, the taxon Rhynchota got adopted by some workers who believed arthroidignathan and siphunculatan piercing-sucking mouth apparatuses to share the same origin — which, as we’ve learned, is not the case (in the Siphunculata, the piercing-sucking apparatus is formed by the labium and hypopharynx; in Arthroidignatha, by the mandibles and maxillary laciniae). Nowadays the taxon Rhynchota is rejected as being polyphyletic.

During the 18th century, the name Hemiptera was variously applied to an assemblage of orthopterans, fireflies, ants, true bugs, and scorpions (Linnaeus 1735); to insects with somewhat hardened forewings — orthopterans and bugs (Linnaeus 1789); to orthopterans only (Retzius 1783); or to bugs and allies (Linnaeus 1758). Under the starting point rule, the formal authorship is Hemiptera Linnaeus 1758, and the original circumscription of this name is the one adopted in the 10th edition of ‘Systema Naturae’ where (unlike in some other editions thereof, both earlier and later) the order Hemiptera consisted of the genera Cicada, Notonecta, Nepa, Cimex, Aphis, Chermes, Coccus, and Thrips with combined circumscription of Arthroidignatha + Thysanoptera. Thus, the name Hemiptera is a circumscriptional synonym of Condylognatha Börner 1904, not Arthroidignatha.

The name Semivaginata (a Latin rendering of the Greek ‘Hemiptera’) was probably first used, both as ‘Semivaginata’ and ‘Semi-vaginata’, by Schluga (1766) who somewhat modified Linnaean classification — e.g., by moving the genus Thrips from Hemiptera (his Semivaginata) to Coleoptera (his Vaginata). If Schluga’s 1767 is the oldest use of the name Semivaginata, then Semivaginata Schluga 1766 fits Arthroidignatha in original circumscription. The name Semivaginata has not been in use recent times. The Latin ‘semi-vaginata’ is a verbatium equvalent of the Greek ‘hem-elytrata’ (from ήμι- and elutron); the name Hemelytrata Fallén 1829 has recently been applied to a taxon subordinated to Arthroidignatha, so using of its Latin translation for Arthroidignatha may cause confusion.

The name Arthroidignatha Spinola 1850 in its original circumscription perfectly fits the taxon in question. Spinola (1850) properly defined Arthroidignatha by the presence of an articulated beak (sometimes vestigial, as in coccids) and explained why it was wrong to combine Arthroidignatha with Siphunculata (= Agnathostomata Spinola 1850) into Rhynchota (in Arthroidignatha, the mouthparts are paired, in Siphunculata they are not) and to mix Thysanoptera (= Anyperognatha Spinola 1850) with Hemiptera (Thysanoptera have no unpaired articulated beak but have paired maxillary and labial palpi).