principles of systematics and nomenclature general system and phylogeny of insects systematics of Ephemeroptera

RUSSIAN

Educational poster on insect systematics

Version 21.03.2013

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1 Hexapoda (Scarabaeus/fg)
Figure: cegmentary composition and spiracles arrangement in Hexapoda (Kluge 2000)

1.1 Entognatha (Podura/fg)
Figure: longitudinal section of head at level of maxillae; transverse section of head through mandibles (md), maxillae (mx) and labiun (Kluge 2000)

1.1.1 Diplura (Iapyx/f=Campodea/g)

1.1.2 Collembola (Podura/fg) Ц springtails

1.1.3 Protura (Acerentomon/fg)

1.2 Amyocerata (Scarabaeus/fg)
Figure: longitudinal section of antenna with muscles, central nerve and Johnston's organ (Kluge 2000)

1.2.1 Triplura (Lepisma/fg)

1.2.2 Pterygota (Scarabaeus/fg)
Figure: three thoracic segments and wings (Kluge 2000)

1.2.2.1 Ephemeroptera (Ephemera/fg) Ц mayflies
Figure: three last instars: larva (nymph), subimago and imago (Kluge 2000)

1.2.2.2 Metapterygota (Scarabaeus/fg)
Figure: two last instars: larva (nymph, pupa) and imago (Kluge 2000)

1.2.2.2.1 Odonata (Libellula/fg)

1.2.2.2.3 Neoptera (Scarabaeus/fg)
Figure: three thoracic segments, folded wings (at left) and spread wing with the ansl fold (at right) (Kluge 2000)

1.2.2.2.3.1 Idioprothoraca (Embia/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.1.1 Embioptera (Embia/fg) Ц webspinners

1.2.2.2.3.1.2 Notoptera (Grylloblatta/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.2 Rhipineoptera (Gryllus/f=Forficula/g)
Figure: three thoracic segments and wings (at right) with anal fan on hind wing (Kluge 2012b)

1.2.2.2.3.2.1 Plecoptera (Perla/fg) Ц stoneflies

1.2.2.2.3.2.2 

1.2.2.2.3.2.2.1 Pandictyoptera s.l., or Holopandictyoptera (Blatta/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.2.2.1.1 extinct plesiomorphon Palaeoblattariae (Mylacris/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.2.2.1..2 [Cryptovipositoria (Blatta/fg)]

1.2.2.2.3.2.2.1.2.1 Raptoriae (Mantis/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.2.2.1.2.2 [Oothecophora (Blatta/fg)]

1.2.2.2.3.2.2.1.2.2.1 плезиоморфон Neoblattariae (Blatta/fg) Ц true cockroaches

1.2.2.2.3.2.2.1.2.2.2 Isoptera (или Termes/fg) Ц termites

1.2.2.2.3.2.2.2 Saltatoria, или Orchesopia (Gryllus/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.2.2.3 Spectra (Phasma/fg) Ц stick-insects

1.2.2.2.3.2.2.4 Dermatoptera (Forficula/fg) Ц earwigs

1.2.2.2.3.3 Parametabola (Cimex/f=Cicada/g)
Figure: three thoracic segments and wings (at right) with coupling apparatus

1.2.2.2.3.3.1 Zoraptera (Zorotypus/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.3.2 Acercaria (Cimex/f=Cicada/g)
Figure: section of head at level of maxillary laciniae (hyp Ц hypopharynx; lac Ц lacinia of maxilla; mx Ц the rest part of maxilla)

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.1 Panpsocoptera (Psocus/f=Pediculus/g)

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.1.1 plesiomorphon Copeognatha (Psocus/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.1.2 Parasita (Pediculus/fg) Ц lice

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2 Condylognatha (Cimex/f=Cicada/g)
Figure: section of head at level of maxillary laciniae (hyp Ц hypopharynx; lac Ц lacinia of maxilla; mx Ц the rest part of maxilla)

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.1 Thysanoptera (Thrips/fg) 

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2 Arthroidignatha (Cimex/f=Cicada/g)
Figure: section of head at level of maxillary laciniae and mandibles (md) and transverse section  of inner proboscis, which consists of maxillary laciniae (medially) and mandibles (laterally)

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2.1 Hemelytrata (Cimex/f=Cicada/g)
Figure: insect with folded (at left) and spread (at right) wings, to show: scutellum of characteristic form, thickened fore wings with characteristic shape of clavus, crossing hind wings with folding anal lobe 

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2.1.1 Auchenorrhyncha (Cicada/fg)
Figure: coupling of fore wing (above) and hind wing (below); wing section Ц light brown; compact coupling process Ц black

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2.1.2 Heteropteroidea (Cimex/f=Notonecta/g)
Figure: coupling of fore wing (above) and hind wing (below); wing section Ц light brown; compact coupling process Ц black

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2.1.2.1 Coleorrhyncha (Peloridium/fg1)

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2.1.2.2 Heteroptera (Cimex/f=Notonecta/g) Ц true bugs
Figure: head laterally, to show: peculiar segmentation of antennae, external proboscis with additional first segment and ventral head surface behind proboscis

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2.2 Plantisuga (Aphis/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2.2.1 Aphidococca (Aphis/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2.2.1.1 Gynaptera (Aphis/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2.2.1.2 Gallinsecta (Coccus/fg) 

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2.2.2 Psyllaleyroda (Psylla/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2.2.2.1 Saltipedes (Psylla/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.3.2.2.2.2.2.2 Scytinelytra (Aleyrodes/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.4 Metabola (Scarabaeus/fg) Ц insects with complete metamorphosis
Figure: three last instars: larva, pupa and imago (Kluge 2005a)

1.2.2.2.3.4.1 Elytrophora (Scarabaeus/fg) 

1.2.2.2.3.4.1.1 Coleoptera, or Eleuterata (или Scarabaeus/fg) Ц beetles

1.2.2.2.3.4.1.2 Strepsiptera (Stylops/f=Xenos/g)

1.2.2.2.3.4.2 Neuropteroidea (Myrmeleon/f=Hemerobius/g)
Figure: longitudinal section of insect, to show intestinum and the dorsal diverticulum originating from fore gut

1.2.2.2.3.4.2.1 Birostrata (Myrmeleon/f=Hemerobius/g)
Figure: head of larva laterally and dorsally to show paired piercing-sucking mouth apparatus formed by coupled mandibles and maxillary palps (Kluge 2005b)

1.2.2.2.3.4.2.2 Rhaphidioptera (Raphidia/fg) Ц snake-flies

1.2.2.2.3.4.2.3 Meganeuroptera (Corydalus/f=Chauliodes/g)

1.2.2.2.3.4.3 Panzygothoraca (Papilio/fg)
Figure: larva excretes from its mouth a silk thread produced by labial glands

1.2.2.2.3.4.3.1 Hymenoptera (Vespa/f=Cynips/g) 

1.2.2.2.3.4.3.2 Enteracantha (Panorpa/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.4.3.2.1 плезиоморфон Mecoptera (Panorpa/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.4.3.2.2 Aphaniptera (или Pulex/fg) Ц fleas

1.2.2.2.3.4.3.3 Diptera (Musca/f=Oestrus/g)

1.2.2.2.3.4.3.4 Amphiesmenoptera (Papilio/fg)

1.2.2.2.3.4.3.4.1 Trichoptera (Phryganea/fg) Ц caddis-flies

1.2.2.2.3.4.3.4.2 Lepidoptera (Papilio/fg)

 

Literature:

Kluge N.J. 2000. Modern systematics of insects. Part I. Principles of systematics of living organisms and general system of insects with classification of primary wingless and palepterous insects. // Lan', S-Petersburg, 336 pp. (in Russian).

Kluge N.J. 2005a. Larval/pupal leg transformation and a new diagnosis for the taxon Metabola Burmeister, 1832 = Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1923. // Russian Entomological Journal (2004) 13(4): 189-229.

Kluge N.J. 2005b. Metamorphosis and homology of mouthparts in Neuropteroidea (Hexapoda: Metabola), with remarks on systematics and nomenclature. // Russian Entomological Journal 14(2): 87-100.

Kluge N.J. 2012a. Cladoendesis and a new look at the evolution of insect metamorphosis. // Entomological Review 92 (6): 622-632 HTM

Kluge N.J. 2012b. General system of Neoptera with description of a new species of Embioptera. // Russian Entomological Journal 21(4): 371-384.