CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

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Thraulus/g1

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Leptophlebia/fg1 Atalophleboadentata Atalophlebopectinata Atalophleboculata Atalophlebomaxillata Atalophlebolinguata
...  Choroterpes/fg1 - Thraulus/g1)

Nomen hierarchicum: Thraulus/g1 [g:1881]

In circumscription fits:

— gen. Thraulus: ??

Nominal taxon included: Masharikella/g [g:1964]


References. Peters & Edmunds 1970: * *; – Kang & Yang 1994: '.


Autapomorphies of Thraulus/g1.

() Egg surface with unique relief in a form of net made by convex ridges: several (10–?) sinuous ridges go from one pole to another, and neighbouring ridges are connected by cross-ridges in such a manner that cross-ridges located by two sides of each longitudinal ridge are regularly alternating (Kang & Yang 1994: Fig.13–16). ??in Thraulus femoratus ??

() Each of two lamellae of tergalius [see Leptophlebia/fg1 (10)] is wide, oval, with numerous long slender marginal processes. Tergalii II–VII always have such structure; tergalius I either has the same structure (in hsui [Thraulus], mariae [Thraulus]), or its dorsal lamella is slender without processes (in  torrentis [Masharikella]), or its both lamellae are slender without processes (in bellus [Thraulus], fatuus [Thraulus], macilentus [Thraulus], umbrosus [Thraulus] ...?), or tergalius consists of a single slender lamella without processes (in femoratus [Thraulus]). Tergalii with similar marginal processes are found in some other taxa of Leptophlebia/fg1 (see Index of characters [1.3.23]).

Characters of Thraulus/g1 of unclear phylogenetic status. 

() Larval patella-tibial suture is lost on all legs, while in imago and subimago it is retained on middle and hind legs, being absent on fore legs only (the same in Choroterpes/g1 - see Index of characters [1.2.18], ibid. [2.2.82]).

Plesiomorphies of Thraulus/g1.

Imaginal and subimaginal claws of all legs are ephemeropteroid (see Index of characters [2.2.85]).

Size. Fore wing length 5–10 mm.

Distribution. Old World (Afrotropical, Oriental and Palaearctic Regions).


Nominal species in Thraulus/g1:

bellus Eaton 1881 [Thraulus] — typus nominis Thraulus ,-,-,-

bishopi Peters & Tsui 1972 [Thraulus]  

demoulini Peters & Tsui 1973 [Thraulus]  

fasciatus Kimmins 1956 [Hagenulus] — typus nominis Masharikella

fatuus Kang & Yang 1994 [Thraulus]  

femoratus Li & Liu & Zhou 2006 [Thraulus]

gopalani Grant & Sivaramakrishnan 1985 [Thraulus]

grandis Gose 1980 [Thraulus]  

macilentus Kang & Yang 1994 [Thraulus]  

maculatus Peters & Tsui 1972 [Thraulus] nom.praeocc. — syn.obj. demoulini [Thraulus]

mudumalaiensis Soman 1991 [Thraulus]

semicastanea Gillies 1951 [Habrophlebiodes] ?

thraker Jacob 1988 [Thraulus]  

torrentis Gillies (in Peters & Gillies & Edmunds) 1964 [Masharikella]  

turbinatus Ulmer 1909 [Hagenulus]  

umbrosus Kang & Yang 1994 [Thraulus]  


Examined also:

sp. (Sulawesi, Mamasa) --

sp. (Sulawesi, Mamasa)

sp.n.Agumbe (India)

sp.n.Courtalam (India)

sp. (Papua, Baliem) /

sp. (Thailand) --/


See also:

Atalophlebolinguata INCERTAE SEDIS

Leptophlebia/fg1 INCERTAE SEDIS