CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

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Simothraulopsis/g1

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Leptophlebia/fg1 Atalophleboadentata Atalophlebopectinata Atalophleboculata Atalophlebomaxillata Atalophlebolinguata 
... Hagenulus/fg1 Hermanellonota - Simothraulopsis/g1)

Nomen hierarchicum: Simothraulopsis/g1 [g:1966]

In circumscription fits:

— genus Simothraulopsis Demoulin 1966

— Simothraulopsis/g1: Kluge 2008: 388

Nominal taxa included: Maculognathus/g [g:2008]


References. Kluge 2008: ; – Nascimento & Salles & Hamada 2017 * *


Autapomorphies of Simothraulopsis/g1.

(1) Hind wing has characteristic colour pattern (Kluge 2008: Fig.21): costal margin blackish; posterior part usually brown. Shape of hind wing is constant: diminished, with prominent costal projection behind the middle, Sc terminates just behind costal projection, from its end a single constant cross-vein arises to RA. Larval hind protopteron has the same blackish stripe on costal margin, as in adults, but has no pigmentation of posterior part (Kluge 2008: Fig.22).

(2) Male imaginal (but not larval) abdomen has characteristic colour pattern: each tergite II–V has translucent anterior part and brown posterior part, terga VI–IX are entirely brown (Dominguez et al. 1997: Fig.10,11). Tergite I is dark brown in all stages – imago, subimago and larva.

Plesiomorphies and variable characters of Simothraulopsis/g1.

Mouth apparatus is non-modified (unlike Hermanellognatha). Each tergalius has both lamellae lanceolately widened (Fig. 5) (unlike Farrodes). Lateral angles of styliger are projected posteriorly (unlike Hermanellognatha), but not so prominent as in Farrodes.

Penis has structure initial for Hermanellonota [see Hermanellonota (2)]: In imago and subimago gonoducts pass inside telopenes and open near their apices; imaginal telopenes are bent toward penis base (Kluge 2008: Fig.13, 18–19). At least in Maculognathus larval protopenis represents a pair of simple-shaped, triangular-roundish lobes (unlike pointed lobes in Hermanella chimaera sp.n. and divergent lobes in Farrodes); each lobe has a roundish gonopore on its ventral side near apex, from which arises a gonoduct lined by larval cuticle (Kluge 2008: Fig.10, 16) (unlike closed gonopore in Farrodes).

On fore wing MP varies from symmetrically forked to unforked with independent MP2. This variation of MP was wrongly interpreted as “developmental change” (Dominguez et al. 1997: 146); actually all insects have shape of veins unchangeable during development from larval protopteron to imaginal wing (Kluge 2000). In sabalo [Simothraulopsis] vein MP varies from symmetrically forked to asymmetrically forked, and in plesius [Simothraulopsis] – from asymmetrically forked to unforked (Kluge 2008: Fig.14, 20,24).

Size. Fore wing length ?–? mm.

Distribution. Neotropical Region.


Nominal species in Simothraulopsis/g:

caliginosus Nascimento & Salles & Hamada 2017 [Simothraulopsis]

demerara Traver 1947 [Thraulus]  

diamantiensis Mariano 2010 [Simothraulopsis]

dominguezi Nascimento & Salles & Hamada 2017 [Simothraulopsis]

eurybasis Nascimento & Salles & Hamada 2017 [Simothraulopsis]

inaequalis Nascimento & Salles & Hamada 2017 [Simothraulopsis]

janae Mariano 2010 [Simothraulopsis]

plesius Kluge 2008 [Simothraulopsis (Maculognathus)] — typus nominis Maculognathus --/

sabalo Kluge 2008 [Simothraulopsis (Maculognathus)] --/

surinamensis Demoulin 1966 [Simothraulopsis] — typus nominis Simothraulopsis — syn.subj. demerara [Thraulus]


Examined also:

sp.n. (Peru) /,


See also:

Atalophlebolinguata INCERTAE SEDIS

Leptophlebia/fg1 INCERTAE SEDIS