CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

ABC

z 

Hermanellonota, or Hermanella/fg1

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna Bidentiseta Furcatergaliae  
Leptophlebia/fg1 Atalophleboadentata Atalophlebopectinata Atalophleboculata Atalophlebomaxillata Atalophlebolinguata 
... Hagenulus/fg1 - Hermanellonota)

Nomen circumscribens: Hermanellonota Kluge 2008

Nomen hierarchicum: Hermanella/fg1 [f:2008; g:1924] (incl. Farrodes, Simothraulopsis, Homothraulus)

In circumscription fits:

 Hermanellonota = Hermanella/fg1 = Hermanellini Kluge 2008: 387


References. Kluge 2008: * * *.


Autapomorphies of Hermanellonota.

1) Cuticle of subimaginal mesonotum lost pigmented areas characteristic for other Leptophlebia/fg1 [see Leptophlebia/fg1 (3)]; medioparapsidal suture, being not bordered by pigmened area, in its posterioir part does not become shallower and reaches median suture; parascutellum is directly connected with lateroscutum, without membranous area between them. Unique apomorphy. In most species mesonotal cuticle is non-pigmented; in species with well-pigmented subimaginal mesonotal cuticle (among species examined in saltensis [Hydrosmilodon]) its colour pattern sharply differs from all other Leptophlebia/fg1: medioparapsidal suture represent a wide colourless stripe, bordered by pigmented medioscutum and submedioscutum (Kluge 2008: Fig.29).

In some species of Leptophlebia/fg1, not belonging to Hermanella/fg1, mesonotal subimaginal cuticle can be colourless, so they can be confused with Hermanella/fg1; these species can be distinguished from Hermanella/fg1 if observe their translucent subimaginal exuviae at various kinds of light: at some light there are visible outlines of areas corresponding to the pigmented areas initial for Leptophlebia/fg1, while in Hermanella/fg1 these areas are absent completely and can not be seen at any light.

(2) Each of two penis apices is produced into a slender sclerotized tubular process telopenis, inside which the genital duct passes. In imago these telopenes are sharply bent at their bases, so that arise not from apices of penis lobes, but from their ventral or lateral surfaces, being directed either laterally (in Farrodes), or even anteriorly, i.e. toward penis base (in Homothraulus/g1 and Hermanella/g2). Unlike imago, in mature larva telopenes represent apical continuations of penis lobes, being directed caudally, so that gonopores occupy apical position; larval penis itself (i.e. protopenis) can have developed gonopores with ducts lined by larval cuticle (Kluge 2008: Fig.911, 15, 2728, 32, 34). In subimago telopenes can occupy a position intermediate between the larval and the imaginal ones (Kluge 2008: Fig.12). Subimaginal telopenes are sclerotized, while the rest penis is membranose.

Among Hermanella/fg1, such telopenes with apical gonopores occur in Simothraulopsis and Hermanellognatha. In Farrodes telopenes lack gonoducts, and gonopores locate at their bases; probably, this is a secodary condition (see below).

Telopenes can be confused with superficially similar processes, which occur in some other taxa and arise from penis apex toward its base (see Index of characters [2.3.16]); but unlike telopenes, penial processes of other Leptophlebia/fg1 do not bear the genital duct and in larval and subimaginal protopenis have the same direction as in imaginal penis.

Characters of Hermanellonota of unclear phylogenetic status. 

(3) Among denticles on inner side of larval claw [see Leptophlebia/fg1 (9)], most distal denticle is often much larger than others. Non-unique apomorphy (see Index of characters [1.2.21]). Among Hermanellonota, in Traverella, in mikei [Hydrosmilodon] and in chimaera [Hermanella] the distalmost denticle is not larger than others; probably, this is a secondary condition.

(4) MP of hind wing has no fork (see Index of characters [2.2.69]); at the same time, hind wing is not vestigial, with at least one well-developed vein behind MP.

Plesiomorphies of Hermanellonota. Glossae are small, not curved ventrally (see Index of characters [1.1.50]). On fore wing fork of MA is asymmetrical [see Leptophlebia/fg1 (5)] (see Index of characters [2.2.43]). In cubital field of fore wing anteriormost of two intercalaries [see Leptophlebia/fg1 (7)] is either basally connected with CuA (in most of Traverella), or free, but never connected with CuP (see Index of characters [2.2.51]).

Size. Fore wing length ?? mm.

Distribution. Neotropical Region.


The taxon Hermanellonota (or Hermanella/fg1) is divided into:

1. Hermanellognatha (or Hermanella/fg2)

1.1. Hermanella/fg3

1.2. Traverella  

1.3. Needhamella  

1.4. Leentvaria

1.5. Hylister

2. Simothraulopsis/g1

2.1. Simothraulopsis/g2

2.2. Maculognathus

3. Farrodes

4. ?Homothraulus

5. ?Ecuaphlebia