CLADOENDESIS OF EPHEMEROPTERA

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Chopralla

(Panephemeroptera Euephemeroptera Euplectoptera Anteritorna pm.Tridentiseta  
Tetramerotarsata Liberevenata Turbanoculata 
Anteropatellata Baetovectata Centroptella/g1 - Chopralla)

Nomen hierarchicum: Chopralla/g(1) [g:1987]

In circumscription fits:

— subgen. Chopralla: Kluge 2021: 96


References. Kluge & Godunko & Svitok 2020:  ; – Kluge 2021: * *.


Probable autapomorphies of Chopralla.

(1) In larva, at least abdominal terga I–IV lack denticles on posterior margins.

(2) Rows of bifurcate setae [see Centroptella/g1 ()] are present on abdominal sterna IV–V only, being absent on sternum VI (in contrast to Centroptella/g2).

Characters of Chopralla of unclear phylogenetic status (probable plesiomorpies). 

(3) In larva, posterior arm of U-shaped row of long setae [ see Centroptella/g1 ()] on fore- and middle leg is situated more transversely than longitudinally and crosses tibia  (Figs ). The same in Crassolus, in contrast to Centroptella/g3.

(4) In larva, claws with 2 rows of denticles (Figs ). The same in Crassolus, in contrast to Centroptella/g3.

Plesiomorphies of Chopralla.

(5) In last larval instar, developing subimaginal gonostyli folded under larval cuticle in «Nigrobaetis-type» pose, with 3rd segments directed caudally (Fig. ). The same in many other Baetovectata, but in contrast to Centroptella/g2, whose gonostyli are folded in the peculiar «Crassolus-type» pose.

(6) Gonovectes without halberd-like widenings apically (in contrast to Crassolus).

(7) Sterno-styligeral muscle is retained (in contrast to Crassolus), being rather weak and often divided into a pair of convergent muscles (Figs ).

Size. Fore wing length 3.5–5.5 mm (see Tetramerotarsata).

Distribution. Oriental Region.


Nominal species in Chopralla/g1:

bintang Marle & Salles & Gattolliat 2016 [Bungona (Chopralla)]

ceylonensis Müller-Liebenau 1983 [Centroptella] — typus nominis Chopralla --/

colorata Soldan & Braasch & Luu-Tham-Muu 1987 [Centroptella]  

fusina Tong & Dudgeon 2003 [Chopralla]  

ghatensis Kluge 2021 [Centroptella (Chopralla)]

kangi Kluge 2021 [Centroptella (Chopralla)]

papuanica Kluge 2021 [Centroptella (Chopralla)]

pusilla Müller-Liebenau 1984 [Centroptella]  

rufostriata Kluge 2021 [Centroptella (Chopralla)]

similis Müller-Liebenau 1983 [Centroptella]  — syn.subj. ceylonensis [Centroptella]


Examined also:


See also:

Baetovectata INCERTAE SEDIS

Turbanoculata INCERTAE SEDIS